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SKA Part 2

Apr 28, 2022



1) ”SKA Project,” URL:

2) ”The History of the SKA Project,” URL:

3) ”Participating Countries,” SKA, URL:

4) ”SKA Work Packages,” SKA, 2013, URL:

5) S. A. Torchinsky, J. W. Broderick, A. Gunst, A. J. Faulkner, ”SKA-AAMID Science Requirements,” SKA, 23 January 2017, URL:

6) ”The Location of the SKA,” URL:

7) Richard Schilizzi, ”The Square Kilometre Array,” The Radio Universe @ Ger’s (wave)-length,” Ger's Feest, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands, 4-7 November 2013, URL:, URL of conferene:

8) ”France to join SKAO as full member,” SKAO, 11 April 2022, URL:

9) ”SKA construction steams ahead with over two dozen contracts committed,” SKAO News, 21 December 2021, URL:

10) ”SKAO signs agreement with Canada’s National Research Council,” SKAO News, 29 November 2021, URL:

11) Jeff Foust, ”Radio telescope faces “extremely concerning” threat from satellite constellations,” SpaceNews, 3 July 2021, URL:

12) ”Green light given for construction of world’s largest radio telescope arrays,” SKAO, 29 June 2021, URL:

13) ”China ratifies SKA Observatory Convention,” SKAO, 3 June 2021, URL:

14) ”SKA Observatory to welcome France as new member,” SKAO, 28 May 2021, URL:

15) The consortium, known as ‘Maison SKA-France’, includes universities and research organizations CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, University of Bordeaux, University of Orléans, INRIA and CEA/DRF as well as companies Air Liquide, ATOS-Bull, Callisto, CNIM, Kalray, FEDD and Thales.

16) ”SKAO is born – Launch of international Observatory signals new era for radio astronomy,” SKAO, 4 February 2021, URL:

17) ”SKA Observatory in final sprint before official launch,” SKA, 16 September 2020, URL:

18) ”Portugal becomes fifth country to ratify SKA Observatory Convention,” 11 December 2020, URL:

19) ”SKAO needs corrective measures from satellite ‘mega-constellation’ operators to minimize impact on its telescopes,” SKAO, 7 October 2020, URL:

20) ”Australia ratifies SKA Observatory Convention,” SKA Observatory, 29 September 2020, URL:

21) ”South Africa ratifies SKA Observatory Convention,” SKA, 2 June 2020, URL:

22) Nicholas Wallace, ”SKA: Major science project across three continents keeps running during the pandemic,” Science Business, 4 May 2020, URL:

23) Philip Diamond, SKA Director General, ”Public statement on the status of the SKA project,” SKA, 28 April 2020, URL:

24) ”Switzerland’s EPFL joins SKA Organisation,” SKA News, 20 April 2020, URL:

25) ”SKA partner SARAO to manage ventilator production in South Africa,” SKA News, 9 April 2020, URL:

26) ”Italy ratifies SKA Observatory Convention,” SKA, 5 February 2020, URL:

27) ”SKA passes overall design review,” SKA, 19 December 2019, URL:

28) ”Official opening of the SKA Global Headquarters,” SKA-France, Monthzly Bulletin, July 2019, URL:

29) ”Design work on ‘brain’ of world’s largest radio telescope completed,” University of Cambridge, 09 May 2019, URL:

30) ”Germany’s Max Planck Society becomes newest member of SKA Organization,” SKA, 08 May 2019, URL:

31) ”Founding Members sign SKA Observatory treaty,” SKA Telescope, 12 March 2019, URL:

32) ”SKA’s Infrastructure consortia complete their detailed design work for the SKA sites,” SKA Telescope, 25 February 2019, URL:

33) ”Canadian-led Central Signal Processor consortium successfully concludes SKA design work,” SKA Telescope, 20 February 2019, URL:


35) ”Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder – Fast Facts,” CSIRO, URL:

36) ”ASKAP and the SKA,” ATNF, URL:

37) ”The Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) Telescope,” ATNF (Australia Telescope National Facility), URL:

38) ”Low Frequency Aperture Array,” ASTRON, URL:

39) ”Low Frequency Aperture Array (LFAA) – SKA-low,” ICRAR, URL:

40) ”Astronomers Capture Supermassive Black Hole Eruption Near Earth Spanning 16 Times the Full Moon in the Sky,” ICRAR, 23 December 2021, URL:

41) B. McKinley, S. J. Tingay, M. Gaspari, R. P. Kraft, C. Matherne, A. R. Offringa, M. McDonald, M. S. Calzadilla, S. Veilleux, S. S. Shabala, S. D. J. Gwyn, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crnojević, B. M. Gaensler, M. Johnston-Hollitt, ”Multi-scale feedback and feeding in the closest radio galaxy Centaurus A,” Nature Astronomy Letter, Published: 22 December 2021,, URL:

42) ”Never-before-seen radio waves detected from nearby stars and distant galaxies,” news, 19 August 2021, URL:

43) Clara M Pennock, Jacco Th van Loon, Miroslav D Filipović, Heinz Andernach, Frank Haberl, Roland Kothes, Emil Lenc, Lawrence Rudnick, Sarah V White, Claudia Agliozzo, Sonia Antón, Ivan Bojičić, Dominik J Bomans, Jordan D Collier, Evan J Crawford, Andrew M Hopkins, Kanapathippillai Jeganathan, Patrick J Kavanagh, Bärbel S Koribalski, Denis Leahy, Pierre Maggi, Chandreyee Maitra, Josh Marvil, Michał J Michałowski, Ray P Norris, Joana M Oliveira, Jeffrey L Payne, Hidetoshi Sano, Manami Sasaki, Lister Staveley-Smith, Eleni Vardoulaki, ”The ASKAP-EMU Early Science Project: 888 MHz radio continuum survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Published: 02 July 2021, Volume 506, Issue 3, September 2021, Pages 3540–3559,

44) ”Outback radio telescope discovers dense, spinning, dead star,” ICRAR(International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research), 21 April 2021, URL:

45) N. A. Swainston, N. D. R. Bhat, M. Sokolowski, S. J. McSweeney, S. Kudale, S. Dai, K. R. Smith, I. S. Morrison, R. M. Shannon, W. van Straten, M. Xue, S. M. Ord, S. E. Tremblay, B. W. Meyers, A. Williams, G. Sleap, M. Johnston-Hollitt, D. L. Kaplan, S. J. Tingay, and R. B. Wayth, ”Discovery of a Steep-spectrum Low-luminosity Pulsar with the Murchison Widefield Array,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 911, Number 2, Published: 21 April 2021,

46) Andrew Hopkins, ”50 million light-year long gas filament discovered, confirming model of the evolution of the Universe,” CSIRO, 16 December 2020, URL:

47) M. Brüggen, T. H. Reiprich, E. Bulbul, B. S. Koribalski, H. Andernach, L. Rudnick, D. N. Hoang, A. G. Wilber, S. W. Duchesne, A. Veronica, F. Pacaud, A.M. Hopkins, R. P. Norris, M. Johnston-Hollitt, M. J. I. Brown, A. Bonafede, G. Brunetti, J.D. Collier, J. S. Sanders, E. Vardoulaki, T. Venturi, A.D. Kapinska, J. Marvil, ”Radio observations of the merging galaxy cluster system Abell 3391-Abell 3395,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, 17 December, 2020,

48) ”Australian telescope creates a new atlas of the Universe,” CSIRO, 1 December 2020, URL:

49) D. McConnell,C. L. Hale,E. Lenc,J. K. Banfield,George Heald,A. W. Hotan, James K. Leung, Vanessa A. Moss, Tara Murphy, Andrew O’Brien, Joshua Pritchard, Wasim Raja, Elaine M. Sadler, Adam Stewart,Alec J. M. Thomson, M. Whiting, James R. Allison,S. W. Amy, C. Anderson, Lewis Ball, Keith W. Bannister,Martin Bell, Douglas C.-J. Bock, Russ Bolton,J. D. Bunton, A. P. Chippendale, J. D. Collier,F. R. Cooray,T. J. Cornwell,P .J. Diamond, P. G. Edwards, N. Gupta, Douglas B. Hayman, Ian Heywood,C. A. Jackson,Bärbel S. Koribalski, Karen Lee-Waddell, N. M. McClure-Griffiths, Alan Ng, Ray P. Norris, Chris Phillips,John E. Reynolds,Daniel N. Roxby, Antony E. T. Schinckel, Matt Shields, Chenoa Tremblay, A. Tzioumis, M. A. Voronkov and Tobias Westmeier, ”The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey I: Design and first results,” Published online by Cambridge University Press, 30 November 2020, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Volume 37, e048, pp:1–18,, URL:

50) Louise Jeckells, ”Murriyang: Parkes radio telescope receives Indigenous name,” CSIRO, 9 November 2020, URL:

51) ”Australian telescope finds no signs of alien technology in 10 million star systems,” ICRAR, 8 September 2020, URL:

52) Chenoa D. Tremblay & Steven J. Tingay, ”A SETI Survey of the Vela Region using the Murchison Widefield Array: Orders of Magnitude Expansion in Search Space,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia(PASA), 4 September 2020,, URL:

53) ”Preparations complete in Western Australia for construction of world’s largest telescope,” Curtin University Media Release, 10 June 2020, URL:

54) ”Zooming in on the origins of fast radio bursts,” CSIRO, 2 June 2020, URL:

55) Shivani Bhandari, Elaine M. Sadler, J. Xavier Prochaska, Sunil Simha, Stuart D. Ryder, Lachlan Marnoch, Keith W. Bannister, Jean-Pierre Macquart, Chris Flynn, Ryan M. Shannon, Nicolas Tejos, Felipe Corro-Guerra, Cherie K. Day, Adam T. Deller, Ron Ekers, Sebastian Lopez, Elizabeth K. Mahony, Consuelo Nuñez, and Chris Phillips, ”The Host Galaxies and Progenitors of Fast Radio Bursts Localized with the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 895, Number 2, Published 1 June 2020,

56) ”Cosmic bursts unveil Universe’s missing matter,” ICRAR(International Center for Radio Astronomy) in Perth, Australia, 27 May 2020, URL:

57) J.-P. Macquart, J. X. Prochaska, M. McQuinn, K. W. Bannister, S. Bhandari, C. K. Day, A. T. Deller, R. D. Ekers, C. W. James, L. Marnoch, S. Osłowski, C. Phillips, S. D. Ryder, D. R. Scott, R. M. Shannon & N. Tejos, ”A census of baryons in the Universe from localized fast radio bursts,” Nature, Volume 581, pp: 391-395, Published: 27 May 2020,,

58) ”Astronomers make history in a split second,” CSIRO, 28 June 2019, URL:

59) K. W. Bannister, A. T. Deller, C. Phillips, J.-P. Macquart, J. X. Prochaska, N. Tejos, S. D. Ryder, E. M. Sadler, R. M. Shannon, S. Simha, C. K. Day, M. McQuinn, F. O. North-Hickey, S. Bhandari, W. R. Arcus, V. N. Bennert, J. Burchett, M. Bouwhuis, R. Dodson, R. D. Ekers, W. Farah, C. Flynn, C. W. James, M. Kerr, E. Lenc, E. K. Mahony, J. O’Meara, S. Osłowski, H. Qiu, T. Treu, V. U, T. J. Bateman, D. C.-J. Bock, R. J. Bolton, A. Brown, J. D. Bunton, A. P. Chippendale, F. R. Cooray, T. Cornwell, N. Gupta, D. B. Hayman, M. Kesteven, B. S. Koribalski, A. MacLeod, N. M. McClure-Griffiths, S. Neuhold, R. P. Norris, M. A. Pilawa, R.-Y. Qiao, J. Reynolds, D. N. Roxby, T. W. Shimwell, M. A. Voronkov, C. D. Wilson, ”A single fast radio burst localized to a massive galaxy at cosmological distance,” Science, 27 Jun 2019: eaaw5903, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw5903, URL:

60) ”Australia designs local infrastructure for world's largest telescope,” CSIRO, 26 February 2019, URL:

61) ”Astronomers witness slow death of nearby galaxy,” ANU, 30 October 2018, URL:

62) ”Slow death of nearby galaxy,” Space Daily, 12 November 2018, URL:

63) N. M. McClure-Griffiths, H. Dénes, J. M. Dickey, S. Stanimirović, L. Staveley-Smith, Katherine Jameson, Enrico Di Teodoro, James R. Allison, J. D. Collier, A. P. Chippendale, T. Franzen, Gülay Gürkan, G. Heald, A. Hotan, D. Kleiner, K. Lee-Waddell, D. McConnell, A. Popping, Jonghwan Rhee, C. J. Riseley, M. A. Voronkov, M. Whiting, ”Cold gas outflows from the Small Magellanic Cloud traced with ASKAP,” Nature Astronomy Letter, Volume 2, pages901–906, published 29 October 2018, URL:

64) ”ASKAP Science,” ATNF (Australia Telescope National Facility ), 13 June 2018, URL:

65) ”ASKAP Telescope Captures Most Detailed Radio Image of Small Magellanic Cloud,” Sciene News, 29 November 2017, URL:

66) ”ASKAP Early Science Cosmology Survey,” ATNF, June 2018, URL:

67) ”First SKA-low prototype station completed on site,” SKA, 24 May 2018, URL:

68) ”ASKAP Commissioning Update, February 2018,” ATNF and CSIRO Factsheet, February 2018, URL:

69) ”ASKAP: EMU (Evolutionary May of the Universe),” ATNF, CSIRO, 18 September 2017, URL:

70) Ray P. Norris, A. M. Hopkins, J. Afonso, S. Brown, J. J. Condon, L. Dunne, I. Feain, R. Hollow, M. Jarvis, M. Johnston-Hollitt, E. Lenc, E. Middelberg, P. Padovani, I. Prandoni, L. Rudnick, N. Seymour, G. Umana, H. Andernach, D. M. Alexander, P. N. Appleton, D. Bacon, J. Banfield, W. Becker, M. J. I. Brown, P. Ciliegi, C. Jackson, S. Eales,A. C. Edge, B. M. Gaensler, G. Giovannini, C. A. Hales, P. Hancock, M. Y. Huynh, E. Ibar, R. J. Ivison, R. Kennicutt, Amy E. Kimball, A. M. Koekemoer, B. S. Koribalski, A. R. Lopez-Sanchez, M. Y. Mao, T. Murphy, H. Messias, K. A. Pimbblet, A. Raccanelli, K. E. Randall, T. H. Reiprich, I. G. Roseboom H. Röttgering, D. J. Saikia, R. G. Sharp, O. B. Slee, Ian Smail, M. A. Thompson, J. S. Urquhart, J. V. Wall, G.-B. Zhao, ”EMU: Evolutionary Map of the Universe,” 2011, URL:

71) ”EMU Newsletter, Issue 12, April 2017, URL:

72) ”ASKAP telescope to rule radio-burst hunt,” CSIRO, 23 May 2017, URL:

73) K. W. Bannister, R. M. Shannon, J.-P. Macquart, C. Flynn, P. G. Edwards, M. O'Neill, S. Osłowski, M. Bailes, B. Zackay, N. Clarke, L. R. D'Addario, R. Dodson, P. J. Hall, A. Jameson, D. Jones, R. Navarro, J. T. Trinh, J. Allison, C. S. Anderson, M. Bell, A. P. Chippendale, J. D. Collier, G. Heald, I. Heywood, A. W. Hotan, K. Lee-Waddel, J. P. Madrid, J. Marvil, D. McConnell, A. Popping, M. A. Voronkov, M. T. Whiting, G. R. Allen, D. C.-J. Bock, D. P. Brodrick, F. Cooray, D. R. DeBoer, P. J. Diamond, R. Ekers, R. G. Gough, G. A. Hampson, L. Harvey-Smith, S. G. Hay, D. B. Hayman, C. A. Jackson, S. Johnston, B. S. Koribalski, N. M. McClure-Griffiths, P. Mirtschin, A. Ng, R. P. Norris, S. E. Pearce, C. J. Phillips, D. N. Roxby, E. R. Troup, and T. Westmeier, ”The Detection of an Extremely Bright Fast Radio Burst in a Phased Array Feed Survey,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 841, No 1, 20 May 2017,, URL:

74) Douglas Bock, Antony Schinkel, ”The Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder finally hits the big-data highway ,” CSIRO, 16 January 2017, URL:

75) ”ASKAP produces first spectral line 'data cube',” ATNF, 10 April 2014, URL:



78) ”South Africa's MeerKAT Radio Telescope,” MeerKAT Fact Sheet, 2016, URL:

79) ”Notes to Editors on the MeerKAT regional economic impact,” SKA Africa, 2018, URL:

80) ”SKA (Square Kilometer Array),” URL:

81) ”Megamaser “Nkalakatha” discovered by astronomers using MeerKAT,” SARAO Media Release, 7 April 2022, URL:

82) Marcin Glowacki, Jordan D. Collier, Amir Kazemi-Moridani, Bradley Frank, Hayley Roberts, Jeremy Darling, Hans-Rainer Klöckner, Nathan Adams, Andrew J. Baker, Matthew Bershady, Tariq Blecher, Sarah-Louise Blyth, Rebecca Bowler, Barbara Catinella, Laurent Chemin, Steven M. Crawford, Catherine Cress, Romeel Davé, Roger Deane, Erwin de Blok, Jacinta Delhaize, Kenneth Duncan, Ed Elson, Sean February, Eric Gawiser, Peter Hatfield, Julia Healy, Patricia Henning, Kelley M. Hess, Ian Heywood, Benne W. Holwerda, Munira Hoosain, John P. Hughes, Zackary L. Hutchens, Matt Jarvis, Sheila Kannappan, Neal Katz, Dušan Kereš, Marie Korsaga, Renée C. Kraan-Korteweg, Philip Lah, Michelle Lochner, Natasha Maddox, Sphesihle Makhathini, Gerhardt R. Meurer, Martin Meyer, Danail Obreschkow, Se-Heon Oh, Tom Oosterloo, Joshua Oppor, Hengxing Pan, D. J. Pisano, Nandrianina Randriamiarinarivo, Swara Ravindranath, Anja C. Schröder, Rosalind Skelton, Oleg Smirnov, Mathew Smith, Rachel S. Somerville, Raghunathan Srianand, Lister Staveley-Smith, Masayuki Tanaka, Mattia Vaccari, Wim van Driel, Marc Verheijen, Fabian Walter, John F. Wu, Martin A. Zwaan, ”LADUMA: Discovery of a luminous OH megamaser at z>0.5,” Draft Version, 7 April 2022, URL:

83) ”South Africa’s radio telescope success stimulates international expansion investment,” Creamer Media's Engineering News, 3 September 2021, URL:

84) ”Plasma jets reveal magnetic fields far, far away,” Nagoya University, 21 May 2021, URL:

85) James O. Chibueze, Haruka Sakemi, Takumi Ohmura, Mami Machida, Hiroki Akamatsu, Takuya Akahori, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Viral Parekh, Ruby van Rooyen & Tsutomu T. Takeuchi, ”Jets from MRC 0600-399 bent by magnetic fields in the cluster Abell 3376,” Nature, Volume 593, pp: 47-50, Published: 5 May 2021,

86) ”A New Window to See Hidden Side of Magnetized Universe,” NAOJ (National Astronomy Observatory, Japan) News, 6 May 2021, URL:

87) James O. Chibueze, Haruka Sakemi, Takumi Ohmura, Mami Machida, Hiroki Akamatsu, Takuya Akahori, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Viral Parekh, Ruby van Rooyen & Tsutomu T. Takeuchi, ”Jets from MRC 0600-399 bent by magnetic fields in the cluster Abell 3376,” Nature, Volume 593, pp: 47-50, Published: 05 May 2021,

88) ”Cosmic beasts and where to find them”, Science Daily, 19 January 2021, URL:

89) J Delhaize, I Heywood, M Prescott, M J Jarvis, I Delvecchio, I H Whittam, S V White, M J Hardcastle, C L Hale, J Afonso, Y Ao, M Brienza, M Brüggen, J D Collier, E Daddi, M Glowacki, N Maddox, L K Morabito, I Prandoni, Z Randriamanakoto, S Sekhar, Fangxia An, N J Adams, S Blyth, R A A Bowler, L Leeuw, L Marchetti, S M Randriamampandry, K Thorat, N Seymour, O Smirnov, A R Taylor, C Tasse, M Vaccari, ”MIGHTEE: are giant radio galaxies more common than we thought?,” MNRAS, Volume 501, Issue 3, March 2021, Pages 3833–3845,, Published: 14 December 2020

90) ”The MeerKAT Extension Project - Improvement of the MeerKAT radio telescope array in South Africa by 20 additional dishes,” MPIFR Press Release, 16 September 2020, URL:

91) Sarah Wild, ”South Africa slashes science budget, funds for giant radio telescope,” Science Magazine, 25 June 2020, URL:

92) ”South Africa’s MeerKAT solves mystery of ‘X-galaxies’,” SARAO Media Release, 7 2020, URL:

93) W. D. Cotton, K. Thorat, J. J. Condon, B. S. Frank, G. I. G. Józsa, S. V. White, R. Deane, N. Oozeer, M. Atemkeng, L. Bester, B. Fanaroff, R. S. Kupa, O. M .Smirnov, T. Mauch, V. Krishnan, F. Camilo, ”Hydrodynamical Backflow in X-shaped Radio Galaxy PKS 2014-55,”MNRAS, Published: 7 May 2020,

94) ”Astronomers stumble upon unexpected features in a distant galaxy using MeerKAT data,” SARAO Media Release, 8 April 2020, URL:

95) M. Ramatsoku, M. Murgia, V. Vacca, P. Serra, S. Makhathini, F. Govoni, O. Smirnov, L. A. L. Andati, E. de Blok, G. I. G. Józsa, P. Kamphuis, D. Kleiner, F. M. Maccagni, D. Cs. Molnár, A. J. T. Ramaila, K. Thorat and S. V. White, ”Collimated synchrotron threads linking the radio lobes of ESO 137-006,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 636, L1, Published online: 8 April 2020,, URL:

96) ”South Africa’s MeerKAT peers deep into the Universe,” SARAO, 17 December 2019, URL:

97) T. Mauch, W. D. Cotton, J. J. Condon, A. M. Matthews, T. D. Abbott, R. M. Adam, M. A. Aldera, K. M. B. Asad, E. F. Bauermeister, T. G. H. Bennett, H. Bester, D. H. Both, L. R. S. Brederode, Z. B. Brits, S. J. Buchner, J. P. Burger, F. Camilo, J. M. Chalmers, T. Cheetham, D. de Villiers, M. S. de Villiers, M. A. Dikgale-Mahlakoana, L. J. du Toit, S. W. P. Esterhuyse, G. Fadana, B. L. Fanaroff, S. Fataar, S. February, B. S. Frank, R. R. G. Gamatham, M. Geyer, S. Goedhart, S. Gounden, S. C. Gumede, I. Heywood, M. J. Hlakola, J. M. G. Horrell, B. Hugo, A. R. Isaacson, G. I. G. Józsa, J. L. Jonas, R. P. M. Julie, F. B. Kapp, V. A. Kasper, J. S. Kenyon, P. P. A. Kotzé, N. Kriek, H. Kriel, T. W. Kusel, R. Lehmensiek, A. Loots, R. T. Lord, B. M. Lunsky, K. Madisa, L. G. Magnus, J. P. L. Main, J. A. Malan, J. R. Manley, S. J. Marais, A. Martens, B. Merry, R. Millenaar, N. Mnyandu, I. P. T. Moeng, O. J. Mokone, T. E. Monama, M. C. Mphego, W. S. New, B. Ngcebetsha, K. J. Ngoasheng, M. T. O. Ockards, N. Oozeer, A. J. Otto, A. A. Patel, A. Peens-Hough, S. J. Perkins, A. J. T. Ramaila, Z. R. Ramudzuli, R. Renil, L. L. Richter, A. Robyntjies, S. Salie, C. T. G. Schollar, L. C. Schwardt, M. Serylak, R. Siebrits, S. K. Sirothia, O. M. Smirnov, L. Sofeya, G. Stone, B. Taljaard, C. Tasse, I. P. Theron, A. J. Tiplady, O. Toruvanda, S. N. Twum, T. J. van Balla, A. van der Byl, C. van der Merwe, V. Van Tonder, B. H. Wallace, M. G. Welz, L. P. Williams, and B. Xaia, ”The 1.28 GHz MeerKAT DEEP2 Image,” accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal, Draft version December 16, 2019, URL:

98) ”Discovery of the highest energy light from a gamma-ray burst,” SARAO Media Release, 21 November 2019, URL:

99) V. A. Acciari, S. Ansoldi, L. A. Antonelli, A. Arbet Engels, D. Baack, A. Babić, B. Banerjee, U. Barres de Almeida, J. A. Barrio, J. Becerra González, W. Bednarek, L. Bellizzi, E. Bernardini, A. Berti, J. Besenrieder, W. Bhattacharyya, C. Bigongiari, A. Biland, O. Blanch, G. Bonnoli, Ž. Bošnjak, G. Busetto, R. Carosi, G. Ceribella, Y. Chai, A. Chilingaryan, S. Cikota, S. M. Colak, U. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, V. D’Elia, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, B. De Lotto, M. Delfino, J. Delgado, D. Depaoli, F. Di Pierro, L. Di Venere, E. Do Souto Espiñeira, D. Dominis Prester, A. Donini, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, V. Fallah Ramazani, A. Fattorini, G. Ferrara, D. Fidalgo, L. Foffano, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, C. Fruck, S. Fukami, R. J. García López, M. Garczarczyk, S. Gasparyan, M. Gaug, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, N. Godinović, D. Green, D. Guberman, D. Hadasch, A. Hahn, J. Herrera, J. Hoang, D. Hrupec, M. Hütten, T. Inada, S. Inoue, K. Ishio, Y. Iwamura, L. Jouvin, D. Kerszberg, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, A. Lamastra, D. Lelas, F. Leone, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, F. Longo, M. López, R. López-Coto, A. López-Oramas, S. Loporchio, B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga, C. Maggio, P. Majumdar, M. Makariev, M. Mallamaci, G. Maneva, M. Manganaro, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, M. Mariotti, M. Martínez, D. Mazin, S. Mićanović, D. Miceli, M. Minev, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, E. Molina, A. Moralejo, D. Morcuende, V. Moreno, E. Moretti, P. Munar-Adrover, V. Neustroev, C. Nigro, K. Nilsson, D. Ninci, K. Nishijima, K. Noda, L. Nogués, S. Nozaki, S. Paiano, M. Palatiello, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, P. Peñil, M. Peresano, M. Persic, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, I. Puljak, W. Rhode, M. Ribó, J. Rico, C. Righi, A. Rugliancich, L. Saha, N. Sahakyan, T. Saito, S. Sakurai, K. Satalecka, K. Schmidt, T. Schweizer, J. Sitarek, I. Šnidarić, D. Sobczynska, A. Somero, A. Stamerra, D. Strom, M. Strzys, Y. Suda, T. Surić, M. Takahashi, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzić, M. Teshima, N. Torres-Albà, L. Tosti, V. Vagelli, J. van Scherpenberg, G. Vanzo, M. Vazquez Acosta, C. F. Vigorito, V. Vitale, I. Vovk, M. Will, D. Zarić & L. Nava, The MAGIC Collaboration, ”Observation of inverse Compton emission from a long γ-ray burst,” Nature, Vol. 575, pp: 459–463, Published: 20 November 2019,

100) ”Towering balloon-like features discovered near center of Milky Way,” EurekAlert News Release, 11 September 2019, URL:

101) ”South Africa’s MeerKAT discovers giant radio bubbles at centre of Milky Way,” SKA, 11 September 2019, URL:

102) I. Heywood, F. Camilo, [....] L. P. Williams, ”Inflation of 430-parsec bipolar radio bubbles in the Galactic Center by an energetic event,” Nature Letter, Volume 573, pp: 235-237, Published: 11 September 2019,

103) ”Statement by South Africa’s Minister of Science and Technology,” NRF/SARAO, 25 February 2019, Issued by the Ministry of Science and Technology, URL:

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The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: ”Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors” (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates (


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