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• July 11, 2022: A 12-strong star-studded advisory group is to guide ESA’s human and robotic space exploration as the agency aims to increase European ambitions in space. 1)

- The high-level advisory group will provide ESA’s decision-makers with an independent and objective high-level assessment regarding the geopolitical, economic and societal relevance of human and robotic space exploration for Europe, and recommended options for a way forward.

- The group – comprised of eight men and five women – contains political figures including a former prime minister, as well as economists, academics and an explorer.


Figure 1: Terrae Novae destinations. Terrae Novae is ESA’s exploration programme. The Terrae Novae 2030+ strategy roadmap has been created as a flexible instrument with options to tune the decisions that must be taken for European exploration in view of scientific and technological breakthroughs and considering the evolving political and programmatic landscape, as well as the level of ambition and affordability at the time the decisions are taken. - Terrae Novae is not only literally about exploring new worlds, but by describing the limitless opportunities for discovery, economic growth and inspiration it also expresses our ambitions for Europe’s future innovators, scientists and explorers. - We hope that everyone can use this roadmap to make our three-part vision a reality: to continue a strong presence working in low-Earth orbit, to send the first European astronauts to explore the Moon throughout the 2030s, and to prepare Europe’s role in the first historic human voyage to Mars (image credit: ESA, Oliver Pâques)

- ESA recently published its exploration roadmap called Terrae Novae 2030+ that sets out its ambitious exploration vision for Europe. Its objectives are threefold: to create new opportunities in low Earth orbit for a sustained European presence after the International Space Station; to enable the first European to explore the Moon’s surface by 2030 as a step towards sustainable lunar exploration in the 2030s; and to prepare the horizon goal of Europe being part of the first human mission to Mars.

- The vision builds on the message to embolden Europe’s space exploration that comes from the Matosinhos Manifesto agreed between ESA and its Member States in November 2021. This message was further emphasised at the Space Summit held in February 2022, when ESA’s Director General, Josef Aschbacher, was asked to prepare a political debate on exploration.

- “The Space Summit gave me the mandate to establish a High-Level Advisory Group on Human and Robotic Space Exploration for Europe – and I see this as an outstanding opportunity to prepare a far-reaching decision by our Member States on the future of Europe in space exploration,” says Josef Aschbacher.

- “I very much appreciate the readiness of outstanding group members to provide their diverse and unmatched expertise to make the case for a new, much stronger role of Europe in human and robotic space exploration.”

- The group is due to meet twice in 2022 – in September and November – so that its work can inform decisions taken at the ESA Council of Ministers held towards the end of November 2022.

- It will then meet again in January 2023 and publish a report in March 2023 that will inform the deliberations of a Space Summit that is foreseen to take place as a joint ESA-EU Space Council in the second half of 2023.

- Kai-Uwe Schrogl, ESA’s Special Advisor for Political Affairs, says: “The decisions at the Space Summit 2023, initiated by ESA’s Director General Josef Aschbacher, are expected to open up a new era for European space exploration, autonomous but also ready for cooperation with traditional partners and new ones.”

- The 12 members of the group are: Stefania Giannini, UNESCO Assistant Director General for Education and formerly of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research; Erling Kagge, an explorer who was the first person to reach on foot all three “poles” (the North Pole, the South Pole and Mount Everest); Mariana Mazzucato, Professor of Economics of Innovation and Public Value at University College London and Founding Director of the Institute for for Innovation and Public Purpose; Maria Theresia Niss, Member of the National Council of Austria and Incoming Chair of the European Inter-Parliamentary Space Conference; Cedric O, Former Secretary of State for the Digital Sector of France; Chris Rapley, Professor of Climate Science at University College London and Chair of the European Science Foundation’s European Space Sciences Committee; Anders Fogh Rasmussen, former NATO Secretary General and former Prime Minister of Denmark; Anna Rathsman, Chair of ESA Council and Director General of the Swedish National Space Agency; Tomasz Rozek, a science communicator; Francois Schuiten, a best-selling comic book artist; Christoph Schweizer, Chief Executive Officer of Boston Consulting Group; and Saadia Zahidi, Managing Director of the World Economic Forum.

• July 11, 2022: Vincent Müller, a recent school-leaver, will visit all of ESA’s European sites in the next two weeks. The lucky winner of a free Interrail ticket from the DiscoverEU programme, he decided to use the ticket to make this journey and will share his experiences in a blog to enthuse young people to pursue a career in space. 2)


Figure 2: Infographic showing ESA's establishments and facilities (image credit: ESA)

- The blog, which will also feature pictures and videos, will become part of the testimonials shared on the DiscoverEU website.

- We are looking forward to welcoming Vincent to our establishments around Europe in the next couple of weeks. You can follow his journey at ESA Interrail Blog (in English). Meanwhile, find out more about our ESA establishments and our activities in the interactive One ESA brochure and on the Discover ESA website.

At the beginning of this decade, space exploration is at an unprecedented crossroads. 3)

- When embarking on an ambitious and challenging journey, having a good roadmap is always recommended.

- Terrae Novae is ESA’s exploration programme. The Terrae Novae 2030+ strategy roadmap has been created as a flexible instrument with options to tune the decisions that must be taken for European exploration in view of scientific and technological breakthroughs and considering the evolving political and programmatic landscape, as well as the level of ambition and affordability at the time the decisions are taken.

• June 16, 2022: ESA has put forward its ambitious plans for the next three years and beyond to increase European autonomy, leadership and responsibility in space. 4)

- Spacefaring nations worldwide are investing heavily in space and Europe must raise its game to maintain its position and reap the economic and scientific benefits while working to protect life on Earth from space hazards, Josef Aschbacher, Director General of ESA, told delegates to the ESA Council Meeting held on 14 and 15 June.

- The war in Ukraine has curtailed decades of peaceful international cooperation and highlighted how urgently Europe needs to further develop its own space capabilities.

- It is essential that Europe always has access to space in order to monitor and mitigate climate change, to provide secure communications that are under European control, and to offer rapid and resilient responses to any crises in Europe and beyond, for example.

Figure 3: The Road to CM22 – Europe’s Space Ambition. ESA’s Council at Ministerial level will take place in November 2022, a crucial milestone as Europe sets out its ambitions and plans for space activities in the coming years and decades (video credit: ESA)

- Every three years, ESA proposes new projects and programmes to its Member States to boost the use of space for the benefit of European citizens. The plans for the next three years are thoughtful, considered and pragmatic. They are the result of careful evaluation, and are driven by ESA’s ambition to realise the full potential for space to improve life on Earth and to position Europe and ESA as a global space power by 2035.

- Josef Aschbacher, Director General of ESA, said: “People on Earth want a safer, cleaner world, free from the dangers caused by climate change, by war and political unrest, dangers caused by natural disasters, or caused by the careless use of natural resources. Europe’s achievement in space are excellent – but we can do much more. ESA wants to expand Europe’s ambitions and successes in space for the decades ahead.”

- Space missions stimulate technological innovation and scientific discovery. By committing to the missions of the future, Europe commits to fulfilling its potential and retaining its talent.

- ESA will also help to answer the very human need to understand our place in the Universe and why and how the cosmos is as it is. Today, all Europeans have benefited from ground-breaking missions that were commissioned decades ago. Now, ESA wants to prepare missions that will make the next generation proud, inspire those who will build a science-based economy and advance scientific understanding for further generations to come.


Figure 4: ESA Ambition logo. Europe faces unprecedented societal, economic and security challenges. Space has enormous untapped potential to help tackle these challenges and future crises, while simultaneously creating jobs and boosting innovation in the European space industry. European leaders must act and simultaneously safeguard the environment, create jobs and prosperity for their citizens, and bolster Europe’s strategic position in a changing geopolitical world while recovering from the pandemic (image credit: ESA)

- Everyone relies on space every day. ESA is working to ensure that essential services are secure and that the objects that orbit the Earth are well managed.

- Meanwhile the rise of commercial use of space is transforming the space industry worldwide, fostering innovation and creating jobs and prosperity.

- Now that the June ESA Council Meeting has been completed, the agency has taken another step along the road to the ESA Council of Ministers meeting that will take place in November and will set the agency’s priorities for the next three years.

• May 27, 2022: With more than 5000 participants, 240 science sessions and over 1300 oral presentations, ESA’s Living Planet Symposium comes to a close with record-breaking numbers. Held on 23-27 May at the World Conference Center in the German city of Bonn, the symposium brought together world-class scientists, business leaders, representatives from space agencies and international organisations and industry from around the world. Throughout the week, they showcased the latest advances in Earth observation and highlighted the essential role of Earth observation for decision making regarding the ongoing climate crisis. As the week draws to a close, we look back at some of the highlights of the week. 5)


Figure 5: Living Planet Symposium opening address (image credit: ESA, Jürgen Mai)

- As we reach a crucial junction in the global response to the climate crisis, monitoring the changes in Earth’s system is more important than ever. European satellites orbiting Earth provide up-to-date information about our changing world, giving essential input to international climate policymakers. Data from satellites fuel many critical applications and research within the Earth observation community.

- This extraordinary week proved how Earth observing satellites can take the pulse of our planet from space and help us take action to protect it. The event was organised in partnership with the German Aerospace Agency (DLR) and welcomed local representatives including Katja Dörner the Mayor of Bonn, Anna Christmann, Federal Government Coordinator of the German Aerospace Policy and Ophelia Nick, Parliamentary State Secretary, with the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture.


Figure 6: In her closing remarks, ESA’s Simonetta Cheli, Director of Earth Observation Programmes, highlighted that what has become evidently clear at this year’s symposium is the fact that Europe has firmly decided to step up its ambition in space, to reflect its political and economic standing, and to take a leading role in the global space community. (image credit: ESA, Jürgen Mai)

- In her closing remarks today, ESA’s Simonetta Cheli, Director of Earth Observation Programmes, said, “The Living Planet Symposium has highlighted the fact that Europe has firmly decided to step up its ambition in space, to reflect its political and economic standing, and to take a leading role in the global space community.

- What has become evidently clear at this year’s symposium is the fact that the European Earth observation space sector fully embraces the digital revolution, tackles urgent societal challenges such as the climate crisis and puts forward ambitious initiatives for the European Green Deal. ESA’s Earth observation package for the upcoming Ministerial Council addresses all of these areas.

- “On a personal level, my favourite part was seeing so many enthusiastic people together again at this vibrant event. It brings me great joy to see the very large number of researchers, young professionals and students taking part in this conference. You are the future of Earth observation, and we count on your ideas and passion to ensure a bright future for Earth observation in Europe.”

• April 27, 2022: ESAWebTV caught up with the DG (Director General) while he was in Florida for the Crew-4 launch. Here’s what he had to say. 6)

Figure 7: ESA DG talks about the future of human space exploration (video credit: ESA)

• April 13, 2022: Following the Russian aggression against Ukraine, ESA’s Director General has initiated a comprehensive review of all activities currently undertaken in cooperation with Russia and Ukraine. The objective is to determine the possible consequences of this new geopolitical context for ESA programmes and activities and to create a more resilient and robust space infrastructure for Europe. 7)

- The ESA Council on 13 April acknowledged the following findings and took the following decisions.

- ESA will discontinue cooperative activities with Russia on Luna-25, -26 and -27. As with ExoMars, the Russian aggression against Ukraine and the resulting sanctions put in place represent a fundamental change of circumstances and make it impossible for ESA to implement the planned lunar cooperation. However, ESA’s science and technology for these missions remains of vital importance. A second flight opportunity has already been secured on board a NASA-led Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) mission for the PROSPECT lunar drill and volatile analysis package (originally planned for Luna-27). An alternative flight opportunity to test the ESA navigation camera known as PILOT-D (originally planned for Luna-25) is already being procured from a commercial service provider.

- Meanwhile, a way forward for the PILOT precision landing and hazard avoidance technology is already being defined. This capability is needed for European Lunar exploration activities such as the European Large Logistic Lander (EL3), proposed for decision at CM22. Further, the ESA Director General and the President of the Japanese agency JAXA last week signed an agreement to fly ESA’s EMS-L, the Exospheric Mass Spectrometer instrument, on board the JAXA/ISRO LUPEX lunar rover mission. This adds to the growing list of European experiments flying to the Moon in the next few years.

- Although all the elements of the ExoMars Rover mission (the launcher, carrier module, descent module and Rosalind Franklin rover) have now passed their flight readiness reviews, because cooperation with Roscosmos on ExoMars has been suspended, the mission will not be launched in September this year. Instead, a fast-track study is now under way led by Thales Alenia Space of Italy to assess options for the way forward.

• April 12, 2022: ESA’s new Space Safety Centre is a hub for activities protecting our planet from a raging star, risky asteroids and defunct satellites. 8)

Living close to an active star, in a Solar System filled with ancient and fast-moving asteroids, on a planet that is becoming increasingly surrounded by discarded satellites and their debris, comes with a plethora of challenges. ESA’s Space Safety programme carries out the activities necessary to mitigate and prevent the effects of these hazards.

Inaugurated on 12 April, the new Space Safety Centre is a dedicated facility for the teams monitoring and responding to space weather. Electromagnetic radiation and charged particles hurled into space by the Sun can disrupt or damage active satellites, human space explorers and infrastructure on Earth such as power grids.


Figure 8: ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher and Director Rolf Densing inaugurate new Space Safety Centre (image credit: ESA / J. Mai)

“This new ESA facility demonstrates the ambition of Europe to have its critical missions in orbit and civil infrastructure on ground well protected against hazards from space,” says ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher.

“In close cooperation with its Member States, ESA is contributing to more autonomous and resilient space programmes, today and in the future.”

By monitoring the health of data arriving on Earth from our satellite instruments and from other space weather services, teams at ESA help keep spacecraft and astronauts safe from our star’s unpredictable outbursts, while contributing to the protection of civil infrastructure, like power grids, on ground.


Figure 9: As we discover more about the brilliant scale and nature of the Universe, planet Earth’s blue oceans, green forests and glistening city lights appear even more unique, and even more fragile. Many hazards have been identified originating in space, which although unlikely, continue to pose real dangers to our way of life, and in the worst cases to human health and safety. Only in the past decades have we had the opportunity to understand the potential perils of our position in our Solar System, and as technologies continue to advance we are entering a period in which we can actually act. - However, as technologies advance, so too does our dependence on them, making us more vulnerable to both human-made and natural threats in space (image credit: ESA)

Building autonomy for Europe

The Space Safety Centre is a first for ESA and provides a dynamic environment where next-generation space-weather capabilities, tools and models will be developed, tested and evaluated in close cooperation with European institutes and industry.

The Centre also supports the provision of space weather information and warnings to ESA-operated space missions. It will work in close coordination with the Agency’s Space Weather Services Network, providing timely and reliable space weather information to European spacecraft operators, agencies, institutions, researchers and commercial sectors affected by solar activity including transportation, navigation and power grid operators.

Teams at the Centre will monitor data received from ESA’s space weather sensors, comprising, today, payloads onboard PROBA-2 and hosted on missions flown by other agencies and, in future, additionally from the Vigil and Aurora missions and from new nanosatellite missions.

In the future, it will also be used to monitor the utilisation of data acquired by ESA’s three upcoming space safety missions.


Figure 10: Solar Orbiter captures giant solar eruption. The Full Sun Imager of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on board the ESA/NASA Solar Orbiter spacecraft captured a giant solar eruption on 15 February 2022. Solar prominences are large structures made of tangled magnetic field lines that keep dense concentrations of solar plasma suspended above the Sun’s surface and often take the form of arching loops. This is the largest solar prominence eruption ever observed in a single image together with the full solar disc (image credit: Solar Orbiter/EUI Team/ESA & NASA)

“The stand-up of this Centre at our ESOC mission control centre demonstrates leadership and is a clear step as ESA works to boost European autonomy in space,” says Rolf Densing, ESA’s Director of Operations.

“A major space weather event could cause in excess of €15 billion damage in Europe. We cannot prevent space weather, but costly ground infrastructure and satellites – and the critical services they provide – can be protected through forecasts, timely warnings and real-time information.”

“In close cooperation with its Member States, ESA is contributing to more autonomous and resilient space programmes, today and in the future.”

By monitoring the health of data arriving on Earth from our satellite instruments and from other space weather services, teams at ESA help keep spacecraft and astronauts safe from our star’s unpredictable outbursts, while contributing to the protection of civil infrastructure, like power grids, on ground.

• March 17 2022: As an intergovernmental organisation mandated to develop and implement space programmes in full respect with European values, we deeply deplore the human casualties and tragic consequences of the aggression towards Ukraine. While recognising the impact on scientific exploration of space, ESA is fully aligned with the sanctions imposed on Russia by its Member States. 9)


ESA’s ruling Council, meeting in Paris on 16-17 March, assessed the situation arising from the war in Ukraine regarding ExoMars, and unanimously:

a) acknowledged the present impossibility of carrying out the ongoing cooperation with Roscosmos on the ExoMars rover mission with a launch in 2022, and mandated the ESA Director General to take appropriate steps to suspend the cooperation activities accordingly;

b) authorised the ESA Director General to carry out a fast-track industrial study to better define the available options for a way forward to implement the ExoMars rover mission.

Space Transportation

- Following the decision by Roscosmos to withdraw their personnel from Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana, all missions scheduled for launch by Soyuz have been put on hold. These concern essentially four institutional missions for which ESA is the launch service procurement entity (Galileo M10, Galileo M11, Euclid and EarthCARE) and one additional institutional launch.

- Consequently, the ESA Director General has initiated an assessment on potential alternative launch services for these missions, which will include a review of the Ariane 6 first exploitation flights. A robust launch manifest for ESA missions’ launch needs, including for spacecraft originally planned for launch by Soyuz from Kourou, will be submitted to Member States.

The International Space Station

- The International Space Station Programme continues to operate nominally. The main goal is to continue safe operations of the ISS, including maintaining the safety of the crew.

Way forward

- Based on a first analysis of technical and programmatic impacts on all other activities affected by the war in Ukraine, the Director General intends to convene an extraordinary session of Council in the coming weeks to submit specific proposals for decision by Member States.

• February 16, 2022: European leaders today confirmed their ambitious plans to work closely together to accelerate Europe as a world leader in space during a series of high-level meetings held in Toulouse, France. 10)

- Under the plans, ESA, the EU and their member States are uniting to ensure that Europe fully realises the enormous untapped potential for space to tackle the urgent and unprecedented societal, economic and security challenges it faces.

- The French Presidency of the European Space Agency and the European Union chaired the meetings, reflecting the close and growing cooperation between the EU and ESA.

- European leaders reaffirmed their strong political support for the three “accelerators” identified by ESA to address challenges – from the climate change induced crisis and their consequences to threats to crucial European infrastructure in space and on Earth.

- “Space for a green future” aims to use data derived from Earth observation satellites to help Europe act to mitigate climate change and to support reaching a carbon-neutral economy by mid-century. “Rapid and resilient crisis response” seeks to better use space data, cognitive cloud computing and intelligent interconnectivity in space to support those in charge to provide the vital responses to crisis on Earth. Thirdly the “protection of space assets” will contribute to prevent damage to the European space infrastructure and avoid disruption to its economically vital infrastructures such as power supplies and communications links due to space weather conditions.

- The three ESA accelerators fully complement the EU Secure Connectivity initiative and the EU proposal on Space Traffic Management.

- Individual ESA member and associated States will be invited to champion one or more of the three accelerators or elements within them.

- Government ministers in charge of space activities also mandated the ESA Director General, Josef Aschbacher, to initiate a discussion on a human exploration “inspirator”, which is an essential sovereign capability among all the major space powers except Europe. A high-level advisory group will be established; it will report progress to the next ESA Council of Ministers held in November 2022 ahead of a space summit held in 2023.

- Josef Aschbacher said: “I am very happy to accept President Macron’s proposal to establish a high-level advisory group on ‘human space exploration for Europe’. This decision will shape what Europe will look like in the decade to come. We have to involve experts from all walks of life and mainly from non-space, for example historians, economists, geo-political experts, explorers on Earth, and philosophers to fully grasp all its implications and help us take the right decision.”

- Ministers also expressed their support to increase Europe’s ambition in space science through a proposed “inspirator” of a sample-return mission to search for extra-terrestrial life on one of the icy moons orbiting Jupiter or Saturn.

- Ministers acknowledged the coherence and the links among the three accelerators and two inspirators. They endorsed seed funding of these at the next ESA Council of Ministers, while encouraging ESA to identify other major sources of funding.

- Finally, they approved the principle of holding another space summit in 2023, to be attended by heads of governments of the 30 countries that are members of the EU, ESA or both.

- Josef Aschbacher said: “Europe faces urgent and unprecedented societal, economic and security challenges – from climate change causing floods and fires to cyberattacks on our vital infrastructure. Working closely with the EU and private companies, ESA will ensure that Europe fully realises the potential for space to contribute to tackling these challenges. At the same time, Europe must seize the opportunity to join the leading spacefaring nations through developing a sovereign capability for human exploration and bring Europe’s space ambitions to the next level.”


Figure 11: Family portrait at Space Summit 2022, Toulouse, 16 February 2022 (photo credit: Hamilton de Oliveira/MEFR)

• February 10, 2022: Of the 22,523 valid astronaut applications received by ESA, the largest number came from France (7087) followed by Germany (3695) and the United Kingdom (2000). The astronaut with a physical disability vacancy attracted a further 257 applications. 11)

- Following a comprehensive screening phase, 1361 people were invited to phase two of ESA’s astronaut selection. This is a full day of psychological performance testing at a facility in Europe.


Figure 12: ESA astronaut applications by Member State. Infographic showing the number of applications to ESA's 2021-22 astronaut selection and the number of applicants moving through to phase two split by Member State and gender (image credit: ESA)

- The number of astronaut applicants invited to phase two has also been broken down by Member and Cooperating State. It comprises 530 women and 831 men and at least three candidates from every Member State. This reflects the high caliber of applications received across the board.

- In addition, 27 candidates who applied for the astronaut with a disability vacancy have been invited to phase two.

- Candidates who are successful at phase two will go on to participate in a set of psychological interviews and group tests ahead of medical testing. Those who successfully pass each of these selection stages will be invited to recruitment interviews. ESA’s new class of astronauts and reserve astronauts is expected to be announced in autumn 2022.

• January 24, 2022: European leaders will reaffirm plans to launch Europe on a world-leading trajectory during a high-level space summit to be held on 16 February in Toulouse, France. 12)

- Urgent action is needed to tackle the unprecedented societal, economic and security challenges faced by Europe – from the climate crisis and its consequences to threats to crucial infrastructure in space and on Earth.

- Space has enormous untapped potential to help tackle these challenges and future crises, while simultaneously creating jobs and boosting innovation in the European space industry – and it is vital for Europe to catch up with other space-faring nations such as the US and China.

- The space summit seeks to identify how best to proceed. It will consist of two parts chaired by the French Presidency of the European Union, who is also chairing the ESA Council at ministerial level, reflecting the close cooperation between the EU and ESA.

- The first part will be an informal EU Competitive Council Meeting on Space, attended by government ministers and their representatives from EU member states. Thierry Breton, European Commissioner for the Internal Market in charge of space, and Josef Aschbacher, ESA Director General, are due to address the meeting.

- The second part will be an ESA Council Meeting at ministerial level, attended by government ministers and their representatives from ESA Member States.

- Leaders attending the space summit are due to discuss the EU strategy for secure connectivity and the EU strategy for space traffic management. They will also exchange views on ESA’s three “accelerators” identified by Josef Aschbacher, who has collaborated with a high-level advisory group to raise Europe’s space ambitions to the next level.

- “Space for a green future” aims to use data gleaned from Earth observation to help Europe act to mitigate climate change. “Rapid and resilient crisis response” seeks to better use space data and intelligent interconnectivity in space to empower vital responses to crises on Earth and complements the EU’s strategy for secure connectivity. The “protection of space assets” will contribute to prevent damage to the European space infrastructure and any disruption to its economically vital infrastructures such as power supplies and communications links. It will contribute to a safer space and will be undertaken in collaboration with the EU’s strategy for space traffic management.

- As part of its preparations for the future, ESA is also developing two “inspirators” to raise European ambitions in human space exploration and in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

- Leaders at the summit will consider how best to prepare for the longer-term future. Human exploration is an essential sovereign capability among all the major space powers, except Europe. Creating the ability for European astronauts to explore space on board European vehicles developed through innovative partnerships with European space companies will ensure the future of Europe in space and provide Europeans with the same opportunities as the citizens of the other main spacefaring nations.

- Josef Aschbacher said: “The societal challenges ahead of Europe are widespread, significant and urgent. Addressing them effectively will require bold decisions and dedicated efforts on multiple fronts. Space technologies, data and services are uniquely positioned to make a difference and provide a concrete response to present and upcoming challenges. We must act now and accelerate the use of space in Europe.”

- The summit is a key milestone in the Agenda 2025 journey set out in March 2021. It follows an Intermediate Ministerial Meeting held in November 2021, where the three accelerators and two inspirators were first presented and endorsed by ESA Member States ministers through the “Matosinhos Manifesto”.


Figure 13: Members of Team Europe at the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope. Europe can achieve much more when nations work together – ESA was responsible for launching the James Webb Space Telescope (image credit: ESA-CNES-Arianespace/Optique Video du CSG - M.Guillon)

• January 3, 2022: A GSTP (General Support Technology Program ) activity with Syntony, France, has taken an existing product used to help signals from satellites reach underground and developed and improved it for navigation purposes. 13)

- The product, called SubWave, is for underground geolocation where GNSS signals from satellites cannot be received. It allows the reception of navigation signals with the normal user’s smart phones underground, for example in metro or road tunnels. But there is currently a drawback, which can lead to significant errors in the position being shown.


Figure 14: SubWave, is for underground geolocation where GNSS signals from satellites cannot be received (image credit: ESA)

- The improved system, called SubWave+, has significantly reduced these errors, developing this system into a marketable product. SubWave+ is a dramatic improvement in the system as it brings the accuracy from 10m down to few meters.

- It extends the location service to cover metro or subway stations and their tunnels, compared to the first release of the product, at an affordable price. Using SubWave+ in a tunnel offers a cost reduction compared to the installation of SubWave, since it doesn’t require the system to have to split the area into many zones.

- This technological step is designed to be compliant with any GNSS receivers and enable a seamless transition between indoor and outdoor. The developed product is currently being actively sold to world wide customers. Further refinement in the engineering work for the recurrent production is performed by Syntony.

• December 27, 2021: From simulated moondust to an ultraflat floor, a 3D-printed human bone to a wall decoration that once flew on the Hubble Space Telescope, the new 99 Objects of ESA ESTEC website gives visitors a close-up view of intriguing, often surprising artefacts assembled together to tell the story of ESA’s technical heart. 14)

Figure 15: A selection of items from the new ESA ESTEC in 99 Objects website (image credit: ESA-Redmedia)

- “Objects are what matter,” famed anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss once wrote. “Only they carry the evidence that throughout the centuries something really happened among human beings.” So what manner of objects come out of more than half a century of activity at Europe’s biggest space centre?

- The European Space Research and Technology Centre, ESTEC, is ESA’s singe largest establishment, based on the North Sea coast at Noordwijk in the Netherlands (see Figure 35).

- Often described as the technical heart of ESA, ESTEC is where most ESA projects are born and where they are guided through the various phases of development. It is also the Agency’s centre for technology development, and includes Europe’s largest satellite testing centre, equipped to simulate every aspect of the spaceflight environment.

- During its long and distinguished history as the incubator of Europe’s space efforts – ESTEC’s first satellite was launched back in 1968, the same year that the establishment opened – this establishment has accumulated a rich stash of objects. Whether exotic or ordinary, each tells a story – of inspiration and perseverance, of steps forward and backward, of exploration, discovery and surprise.

- The aim of ESA ESTEC IN 99 OBJECTS is to chart Europe’s cosmic journey through artifacts left behind by the scientists and engineers who’ve helped launch more than 180 missions.

- Surrounded by these 99 objects and many more, nearly 3 000 international experts currently work in 35 ESTEC laboratories on the missions – and new objects – that will define the coming decades in space.

- The first selection of objects has already gone live on the site, with more to follow in the weeks and months to come.


Figure 16: A selection of items from the ESA ESTEC in 99 Objects website (image credit: ESA-Redmedia)


Figure 17: Part of a solar panel from the Hubble Space Telescope was returned to Earth by Space Shuttle and is now on display at ESA's ESTEC technical centre in the Netherlands (image credit: ESA-Redmedia)

• December 17, 2021: Green and digital transition in Europe will benefit from ESA expertise that supports national plans for investing recovery and resilience funds in space projects. 15)

- At the 303rd ESA Council meeting in Paris on 15 December 2021, ESA Member States took the decision to further the role of ESA as provider of expertise in support of national space plans, in particular in order to accompany the investment of Italian recovery and resilience funds in space programmes.

- The corresponding arrangement for ESA’s assistance to the Italian National Project concerning Earth observation and space transportation and associated protocol were signed on the margin of the first Giornata Nazionale dello Spazio (Italian National Space Day), held at the Italian Space Agency (ASI) headquarters in Rome on 16 December 2021, by the Italian Minister for Digital Transition and Technological Innovation and delegated authority for space, Vittorio Colao, and ESA Director General, Josef Aschbacher, in the presence of the ASI President, Giorgio Saccoccia.

- The arrangement covers, in particular, activities in the fields of Earth observation and access to space where Italy has remarkable track records as well as industrial and research capabilities. The closer cooperation between Italy and ESA, with the establishment of joint teams, will ensure that the best available competencies will be utilised in the most effective way. Joint activities will start in 2022 and shall be completed by 2026.

- Minister Colao said: “We have signed an agreement with the European Space Agency for the development of key projects in Earth observation and space transportation. The constellation in Earth observation is an Italian asset designed to strengthen a European strategy in this area. The agreement will contribute to consolidate Italy’s skills in these areas, thanks also to the significant contribution of ASI. It's time for change. The programmes we will carry out must be efficient, fast and effective – and must act as a magnet for expanding European partnerships and attracting private capital.”

- ESA Director General, Josef Aschbacher, said: “ESA and its unique expertise in Europe are an asset to all our Member States. Italy’s decision, as well as similar decisions by other Member States, are a confirmation of the importance of space technologies in tackling the challenges linked to the green and digital transition and the recovery of our economies. This agreement is an important building block in accelerating the use of space for society, one of the key goals of Agenda 2025. On behalf of all women and men at ESA, I am very proud of the trust our Member States place on us in assisting them to carry out their national projects.”

• December 10, 2021: Applicants to ESA’s astronaut selection are being thanked for their patience as thousands of acceptance or rejection notifications are distributed to candidates across Europe. 16)

- Head of Space Medicine at ESA, Guillaume Weerts, says he and his team have been very conscious of the need to give every application the attention it deserves as ESA seeks its first new astronauts in over 10 years. With more than 23,000 applications to evaluate, this is a process that takes time.


Figure 18: The European Astronaut Centre (EAC) is a centre of excellence for astronaut selection, training, medical support and surveillance, as well as supporting astronauts and their families in preparation for, and during, their spaceflights. EAC was established in 1990 and is located near Cologne, Germany. (image credit: ESA, S. Corvaja)

- “We announced that we would have all invitations for the first phase of testing, or the refusal letters and thank you letters, sent by the end of November. Though we came very close to meeting this goal, there are still some applicants who have not heard from us,” he explains.

- “If you are in this category, please be assured you have not been forgotten. You should expect an answer – either positive or negative – by the end of 2021.”

- The next step for successful candidates is an invitation to a full day of testing at a facility in Europe. This process is already underway, with applicants invited progressively due to the work involved in this process and the need to consider Covid-19-related regulations and travel restrictions.

- The first round of testing focuses on psychological performance, this will be followed by a set of psychological interviews and group tests before medical testing. Candidates who continue to be successful through each of these stages will be invited to recruitment interviews, with the final announcement of ESA’s new class of astronauts and reserve astronauts expected by the end of next year.

Figure 19: ESA Head of Space Medicine, Guillaume Weerts, gives an update on ESA’s 2021-22 astronaut selection from the training hall of ESA’s European Astronaut Centre (EAC) in Cologne, Germany (video credit: ESA)

- ESA Human Resources Business Partner Antonella Costa says ESA would like to thank everyone who put themselves forward to be considered for the 2021-22 astronaut selection.

- “We really want to thank all the candidates, both those continuing in the application process and those who will leave us at this stage,” she says. “It is a very competitive process with so many highly qualified people competing for a small number of positions. Even just meeting the initial criteria to apply is something be proud of.

- “Not everyone can be successful in becoming an ESA astronaut, but there are many other ways in which you can support Europe in space,” she adds.

- ESA is recruiting for a number of different roles right now and even more will be advertised in the future that would benefit from the skills and expertise that many of our astronaut applicants bring to the table. So please, take a look at the ESA jobs website to see how else you could be involved and continue your journey with ESA.”

- For more information about ESA’s astronaut selection, visit the Your Way To Space page on ESA’s website.

• November 19, 2021: Government ministers in charge of space activities in ESA’s Member States today met at an Intermediate Ministerial Meeting held in Matosinhos, Portugal. 17)

- The Council of Ministers unanimously adopted a Resolution to accelerate the use of space in Europe (the “Matosinhos manifesto”) to tackle the urgent and unprecedented societal, economic and security challenges faced by Europe and its citizens.


Figure 20: ESA’s Ministers in charge of space activities convened at an Intermediate Ministerial Meeting (IMM21) at the CEiiA centre, Matosinhos, Portugal, on 18-19 November 2021 (image credit: ESA, S. Corvaja)

- The Resolution defined three “accelerators” to bring Europe’s space ambitions to the next level, mandating the ESA Director General to develop their governance and funding concepts, in concert with the Member States.

- As a first priority, ESA will start working towards the “Space for a Green Future” accelerator to enable people to better understand the current state of the planet and to develop scenarios and solutions for sustainable life on Earth through a digital twin of our planet, which will contribute to achieving climate neutrality with net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.

- Secondly the “Rapid and Resilient Crisis Response” accelerator will aim at supporting governments to act decisively on crises facing Europe, from flooding and storms to wildfires, without prejudice to the sovereign competencies of the Member States and to the competencies of European Union.

- Thirdly the “Protection of Space Assets” accelerator will have the objective to safeguard ESA astronauts and assets from interference by space debris and space weather.

- The ESA Council also recognized two “inspirators” to reinforce European leadership in science, technology development and inspiration: an icy moon sample return mission; and human space exploration.

- The concept of the three accelerators and two inspirators were defined over the past few months, based on the advice of a High-Level Advisory Group to the ESA Director General. The “Final Report on Accelerating the Use of Space in Europe” was issued in early October and its recommendations were presented by the ESA Director General to Member States at the ESA Council meeting held later that month.

- The Resolution to accelerate the use of space in Europe strongly supports the vision of the ESA Director General’s “Agenda 2025” to build on Europe’s excellence in space and to realize its full potential, for the benefit of everyone on Earth and European citizens, in particular.

- The Intermediate Ministerial Meeting was a milestone on the road to the European Space Summit to be held in Toulouse in February 2022, ahead of ESA’s next Council Meeting at ministerial level.

- Josef Aschbacher, Director General of ESA, said: “Space is where the intensifying global competition for technological innovation, economic leadership and European autonomy will play out. It is urgent that Europe accelerates its use of space.

- “The Intermediate Ministerial Meeting has recognized the need for a renewed European space ambition. The three accelerators and two inspirators will be steps for Europe to fully use space for its citizens, creating economic opportunities. This gives me as ESA’s Director General a clear mandate ahead of the European Space Summit.”

- Manuel Heitor, Minister for Science, Technology and Higher Education in the Portuguese Government, who chaired the ESA Intermediate Ministerial Meeting, said: “We all need to ‘make space for Europe’ in a way to guarantee that European citizens become an integral part of future space developments in Europe. This means to save lives, predict natural disasters, prevent fires and, overall, deal with climate change, dramatic biodiversity reduction, health and economic crisis, uncertainty and risks, together with ensuring security and safe conditions for our populations. This can only be addressed if space initiatives in Europe move forward in alignment with the digital and green transitions.

- “The large-scale nature and fast pace of the climate crisis and other challenges means that no European nation will be able to effectively address them alone. Space has enormous untapped potential to help tackle these challenges and an acceleration in developing European space capability is now urgently needed.”

• November 15, 2021: ESA is primed to play a crucial role in the revitalized international drive to combat global warming set out at the COP26 climate talks. 18)

- After two weeks of negotiations, the summit – which was held in Glasgow in the UK – concluded with world governments working to agree on a renewed commitment to dial back planet-warming emissions.

- As set out in its recently released vision for European space activities, ESA is stepping up its efforts to help tackle the climate crisis.

- At COP26, the agency showcased how it is using space technology to boost global understanding of the changing environment and accelerate the transition to a green, sustainable economy.

A critical decade for climate action

- A fleet of Earth observing satellites called the Sentinels – developed by ESA as part of the European Union’s Copernicus program – provide data on different aspects of the environment.


Figure 21: Copernicus Sentinel-6 over Northern Europe. Sea levels have not only been rising over the past 25 years, but the rate of rise is accelerating, putting coastal communities at risk. With a coastline of more than 100,000 km, many of Europe’s densely populated coastal zones are vulnerable to flooding. It is vital that the changing height of the sea surface continues to be closely monitored over the coming decades. Copernicus Sentinel-6 is the key mission undertaking this important role until at least 2030 (image credit: ESA/ATG medialab)

- ESA’s Climate Change Initiative – which uses space data to generate long-term observations for key aspects of the climate – enables scientists to understand the Earth system and helps governments and businesses work towards the goals of the Paris Agreement, an international treaty that aims to limit global warming.

- The initiative made strong contributions to a recently released report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that revealed the urgent need to accelerate climate action.

- Over the next decade, ESA’s space activities will help the international community monitor how well mitigation and adaption strategies are working, supporting the ambition of reaching carbon neutrality by 2050.


Figure 22: Possible future temperature rise. ESA's Climate Change from Space Kit is an interactive PDF that takes the reader through many of the ‘variables’ that upset Earth’s delicate balance and describes how ESA measures them from space. - Climate change is a reality. Greenhouse gas emissions from human activity are responsible for rising temperatures, altering the Earth system’s delicate balance. The effects of which are widespread, threatening lives, well-being and prosperity. If unaddressed, the consequences of a changing climate will be devastating. World leaders at COP26 work to accelerate action towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions to keep the goal of 1.5ºC temperature rise within reach (image credit: ESA)

- Several new ESA missions that will facilitate these efforts were highlighted as part of the summit.

- The agency reported that Europe’s new satellite for monitoring and tracking carbon dioxide emissions from human activity is being put through its paces at ESA’s Test Centre in the Netherlands ahead of its launch in 2025.

- The satellite is one of six Copernicus Sentinel Expansion missions being developed by ESA on behalf of the European Union.

- In addition, it was announced that the UK-led Truths mission – which will provide radiation measurements to improve scientists’ understanding of climate change and help increase the precision of climate models – is moving into its next stage of development.

- Other upcoming activities include ESA’s Biomass mission, which is set to improve understanding of how the world’s forests are responding to climate change.

- During the conference, ESA also premiered a documentary that follows ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano, along with a team of glaciologists and climate experts, on a journey across the Alps to investigate the impact of rising global temperatures on glaciers.


Figure 23: Setting the gold standard for climate measurements. ESA’s TRUTHS mission will provide unprecedented accurate measurements of incoming solar radiation and of radiation reflected from Earth back out into space traceable to the International System of Units (SI), with which to calibrate data from other satellites. In effect, TRUTHS will be a ‘standards laboratory in space’, setting the ‘gold standard’ reference for climate measurements (image credit: ESA/Airbus)

Speeding the green transition

- On top of helping to monitor the environment, space technology is enabling businesses in Europe to develop and commercialise sustainable solutions for a decarbonised economy.

- As part of the summit, ESA highlighted how the integration of satellites and terrestrial communications networks is set to enable next-generation connectivity, supporting innovative applications across society, including low-emissions autonomous vehicles, green energy production and even entire smart city ecosystems.

- ESA is developing a centre for business innovation – called the 5G/6G Hub – at its site in the UK to showcase the immense potential of these converged telecommunications networks.

- In addition, the agency’s Space Solutions program is helping European businesses to devise space-based products and services that address key environmental and social challenges.


Figure 24: ESA showcases the 5G/6G Hub at COP26 (image credit: ESA)

- ESA held a joint stand with Space4Climate in the COP26 Green Zone. The agency was joined by many of its partners, including the UK Space Agency, RAL Space, and Darwin Innovation Group.

Figure 25: ESA 5G/6G Hub: space to expand connectivity. A centre for innovation that will showcase how space can enable future generations of telecommunications and connected applications is being developed. The Hub – based at ESA’s European Centre for Space Applications and Telecommunications at Harwell in the UK – is a place for collaboration, where industry will take advantage of the immense potential of converged satellite and terrestrial communications networks to create innovative applications that benefit society and the environment. - ESA’s ambition is to extend the Hub’s technology to cover businesses at the Harwell Campus, and then across Europe and beyond to connect with other research facilities, fostering innovation in ESA’s member states and globally. Developed with information technology company CGI, the centre will provide a converged satellite and 5G terrestrial network. Using this future 5G environment and state-of-the-art equipment, businesses from many industries will partner with ESA to test and develop innovative applications. - It will also bring together innovators from across the 5G ecosystem – including satellite and terrestrial network operators, equipment providers, and application developers – to create 5G solutions. The Hub forms part of ESA’s wider efforts to use space technology to enable connectivity (video credit: ESA)

• October 11, 2021: The new heart of ESA’s Planetary Defence Office was inaugurated today, heralding a new chapter in the Agency’s work to protect Earth from dangerous near-Earth objects, aka asteroids. 19)


Figure 26: What was once a modest office at ESA’s ESRIN establishment, in Frascati, Italy, has been renovated into a much more capable facility to serve as ESA’s NEOCC (Near-Earth Object Coordination Centre). The new site will also serve as the main data hub for daily observation data from ESA’s future Flyeye telescopes, the first of which is now being assembled and integrated at a factory in Milan (image credit: ESA)

- For years, ESA has been dedicated to opening our eyes to hazards in space, and when it came to asteroids this meant ensuring Europe had the capability to detect, track and understand what’s out there.

- In 2019, ESA adopted a renewed ’Space Safety’ program, and ESA’s Planetary Defenders are not only building new, state-of-the-art telescopic eyes on the sky but are working with the international community to devise, build and fly missions to help test asteroid deflection for the first time.

- With the greater responsibility, comes the need for expanded coordination facilities serving as the central hub for the Agency’s asteroid data and analysis efforts.

- “Our new NEOCC and its activities are an important tool of international cooperation, reflecting the global character of the dangers we all face due to asteroids,” says ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher.

- “ESA’s Planetary Defence Office is in regular close contact with all major organisations monitoring asteroid risk, from NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office and their Center for NEO studies, to the UN-endorsed committees that help coordinate the global effort.

- "The Planetary Defence Office is also performing technical management of the recently initiated activities on space safety within the European Union. Our activities are part of a worldwide community effort, and the NEOCC shows that Europe and ESA in particular can bring something substantial and indispensable to the table.”

A new home for ESA’s asteroid ‘sorting hat’

- What was once a modest office at ESA’s ESRIN establishment, in Frascati, Italy, has been renovated into a much more capable facility to serve as ESA’s Near-Earth Object Coordination Centre, NEOCC.

- “The NEOCC is central to ESA’s Planetary Defence Office. Think of it a little like Europe’s asteroid ‘sorting hat’,” explains Detlef Koschny, acting Head of ESA’s Planetary Defence Office.

- “A key activity of the office, for example, is compiling the Asteroid Risk List. The NEOCC ranks any asteroid with a greater-than-zero chance of impacting Earth, then pools all available observations – getting more if necessary – until we know each object’s precise orbit.”

- The Centre is in fact the central access point to an entire network of European data sources and information providers, as well as the provider of vital asteroid orbital information, impact monitoring, risk analyses and more.

- Contributing to and coordinating observations of asteroids and comets in the Solar System, the NEOCC also evaluates and monitors the threat posed by any space rocks that come near Earth, proposing mitigation measures if needed, for example to emergency response agencies in case of an imminent impact.


Figure 27: Relative sizes of possible target asteroids and other known asteroids (image credit: Image composite by AOES Medialab, ESA 2001. Original photos courtesy of NASA/JPL, JHU/APL)

- ESA’s Planetary Defence Office currently consists of 15 people, half of whom work at the NEOCC, and the remainder at other ESA establishments including ESTEC in the Netherlands, ESOC in Germany and ESAC in Spain.

- “With the inauguration of a NEO Coordination Centre in ESRIN, an important milestone has been achieved,” says Giorgio Saccoccia, President of the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

- “Planetary Defence is a priority for Italy, as witnessed also by the participation to the first asteroid deflection experiment through the DART, LICIACube and Hera missions. Our Country supports since the very beginning the ESA programs devoted to space safety as an opportunity to give value to the worldwide expertise of the Italian scientific community working on the asteroid hazard.

- “Over the years, ESA has successfully advanced the key areas of impact monitoring, asteroid tracking, and discovery observations, thanks to the impressive work of a team of highly skilled experts. They deserve the beautiful state-of the art logistic environment being inaugurated today at ESRIN: it is a clear sign that we are on the right track in the path of taking care of our planet and its citizens.”

Leading Europe’s response, collaborating with the world

- As the Planetary Defence Office leads Europe’s response to the asteroid threat, it works side-by-side with the international community, and in particular collaborates closely with NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office, while the NEOCC works closely with CNEOS, the Center for NEO Studies at NASA/JPL in California.

- In addition, ESA is a member of two UN-endorsed organisations: the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN), which is currently coordinated by NASA; and the Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (SMPAG), chaired by ESA. SMPAG is the group in charge of preparing an international space-based response to any future asteroid threat.


Figure 28: Some day in the future, an asteroid might be detected heading toward our home planet. What on Earth happens next? This infographic shows the flow of actions that would take place between global agencies and organisations, should a risky asteroid be detected (image credit: ESA, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO)

- ESA also works closely with the USA-based Minor Planet Center, the international clearing house for high-quality data on near-Earth objects, and the Agency also performs technical management for some of the recently initiated space safety activities within the European Union.

- Last but not least, ESA has an agreement with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) to use their Very Large Telescope for vital asteroid follow-up observations.

• October 6, 2021: Dutch ESA astronaut André Kuipers answering questions from visitors at the tenth annual ESA Open Day at the Agency’s technical center ESTEC in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. 20)


Figure 29: This year’s Open Day combined an in-person tour of ESTEC for visitors with disabilities on Saturday 2 October with an online event open to all the following afternoon. The in-person event was formally opened by Head of ESTEC and ESA Director of Technology, Engineering and Quality Franco Ongaro, André Kuipers and former Dutch Minister for the Disabled Rick Brink (image credit: ESA, SJM Photography)

- With overall visitor numbers limited by continuing COVID-19 precautions, the aim was to give people with disabilities (and their carers) a special chance to see ESTEC – including those who might have found it impractical to visit the establishment amid the busy crowds of past Open Days.

- Stands were set up by various ESA teams so that visitors could touch and hear, as well as see, space hardware and test equipment. Participants finished their tour with a question and answer session with André about his 204 days living and working in space.

- Sunday’s online participants were greeted by ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher: “ESA is an Agency made of people, and this is your chance to meet many of those working behind the scenes.”

- Highlights included a Q&A (Question & Answer) period with German ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst, talks on future missions by ESA space scientists, presentations by ESA Education and Human Resources and a talk applying space recycling systems down to Earth – to convert pee into drinkable tea. The event encompassed multiple ESA establishments, including mission control center ESOC in Germany, Earth observation center ESRIN in Italy and space applications and telecommunications center ECSAT (European Centre for Space Applications and Telecommunications) in Harwell, UK.

• October 5, 2021: The ESA-owned Short Arm Human Centrifuge has been upgraded, installed and inaugurated at the Olympic Sport Centre Planica facility near Kranjska Gora, Slovenia. Soon to be home to ESA bedrest studies, this recently enhanced clinical research center will help further scientists’ knowledge of human physiology in space. 21)


Figure 30: In bedrest studies, volunteers spend from five to 60 days in bed, usually tilted backwards with their heads at 6º below the horizontal. They are not permitted to stand up unless a research program demands it and must perform all daily activities in bed – including eating, showers and exercise (image credit: K. Bidovec & A. Hodalič)

- Run by the Jozef Stefan Institute on behalf of ESA, bedrest studies at the facility offer scientists a way to see how the human body adapts to weightlessness. This allows researchers to test techniques, known as “countermeasures”, to counteract the negative effects of living in space.

- The Short-Arm Human Centrifuge offers an extra suite of possible countermeasures by exposing people to artificial gravity. At 35 revolutions of the 3-m arms per minute, riders may experience a force of gravity that is more than twice their own body weight at their center of mass, and more than four times their body weight at their feet.

- Artificial gravity has the potential to reduce many of the negative effects of weightlessness on the human body in one go. As spinning encourages blood to flow back towards a subject’s feet, they are provided with a force to push against, while they follow a carefully controlled exercise regime of squats, jumps, heel raises and toe raises, for 30 minutes per day. These countermeasures should mitigate the reduction of bone and muscle mass that astronauts, and bedrest subjects, can otherwise experience.

- The Planica facility provides equipment to collect all ESA Bedrest Core Data, allowing for comparison between different ESA-sponsored studies. It can also be maintained under adjustable environmental conditions, such as a low-oxygen atmosphere, which is highly relevant for human exploration missions.

- The results of these studies also benefit people on Earth. Many negative effects of living in space are similar to those experienced naturally as we age, such as osteoporosis, muscle loss and orthostatic intolerance.

- ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher signed the loan agreement for the centrifuge with representatives from the Jozef Stefan Institute during his tour of Slovenia last week.

- Slovenia has been an ESA Associate member since 2016 and recently signed on to the Terrae Novae program (formerly known as the European Exploration Envelope Program (E3P).

• September 10, 2021: Work is under way to sort and assess applications from more than 22,500 ESA astronaut hopefuls. The rigorous selection process will take around 18 months. Initial screening to ensure that basic criteria are met will be followed by medical and psychological tests, exercises and interviews. 22)

- ESA plans to recruit 4-6 new astronauts through this 2021-22 selection round to support the future of European space exploration. This is likely to include missions to the International Space Station as well as the Moon. As part of the selection process, ESA is also assessing the feasibility of flying an astronaut with a physical disability.

Figure 31: An overview of the astronaut selection process (video credit: ESA)

• September 1, 2021: ESA and the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) are opening the second round of their HyperGES fellowship, part of the Access to Space For All Initiative, offering student teams around the globe the chance to perform hypergravity experiments using the Large Diameter Centrifuge at ESA’s ESTEC technical centre in the Netherlands, with a particular focus on developing nations. 23)

- The LDC Large Diameter Centrifuge) is an 8-m diameter four-arm centrifuge that gives researchers access to a range of hypergravity up to 20 times Earth gravity for weeks or months at a time.


Figure 32: Large Diameter Centrifuge at full speed at ESA/ESTEC (image credit: ESA, A. Le Floc'h)

- At its fastest, the centrifuge rotates at up to 67 revs per minute, with its six gondolas placed at different points along its arms weighing in at 130 kg, and each capable of accommodating 80 kg of payload.

- The result is that researchers are able to increase the force of gravity at the turn of a dial. The LDC is popular with life and physical science teams, as well as for commercial experiments. Internal ESA teams use the centrifuge to see how candidate spacecraft materials and components would respond to the violent accelerations involved in launching into space.

- The idea behind this new fellowship is to widen LDC access to teams from all over the world, particularly for teams from developing countries, who may otherwise lack access to such equipment. It is formally known as the ‘United Nations / European Space Agency Fellowship Program on the Large Diameter Centrifuge Hypergravity Experiment Series’, or HyperGES for short.

- The first round winning team came from Mahidol University, Thailand, mounting an investigation into the response of watermeal – the smallest flowering plant on Earth, even smaller than the more familiar duckweed – to changing gravity levels, to assess its usefulness for space-based life support systems. The team is currently developing their hypergravity experiment.

- For the second round of HyperGES, teams of students from all over the world – with particular attention to developing countries – supported by scientists and researchers are invited to submit their application by 28 February 2022.

- To help guide applicants in developing their proposals, ESA has supported UNOOSA in the preparation of a dedicated webinar series.

- The series provides an overview of the fundamentals, special characteristics, and advantages the hypergravity/microgravity environment has to offer, giving insights on the types of research, their applications and how to develop experiments for this unique environment.

- UNOOSA Director Simonetta Di Pippo comments: "Owing to the joint work of the Office and its partners, the Access to Space for All Initiative is playing a key role to bridge the space divide. By providing access to cutting edge facilities such as the Large Diameter Centrifuge to all Member States of the United Nations, ESA is reaffirming its commitment as partner in the Access to Space for All Initiative. I am particularly keen and excited to see potential results and distinctive applications which can contribute to the achievements of the Sustainable Development Goals”.

- ESA Director of Technology, Engineering and Quality and Head of ESTEC Franco Ongaro adds: “We are proud to be part of UNOOSA Access to Space for All Initiative. In ESTEC, we have about 35 research laboratories that allow industry and scientists to achieve their research goals. We thank UNOOSA for extending access to the Centrifuge, operating as an important element of these laboratories, to the rest of the world as well. We look forward to the results of the HyperGES Announcement of Opportunity!”

• August 24, 2021: Planet Aqua: Solutions from Space for Clean Water. An overview of the 'World Water Week' with André Kuipers. 24)

Figure 33: Water is life, on Earth and in space. Dutch ESA astronaut André Kuipers recounts his experience living in space for 204 days, and his time looking back on the blue face of ‘Planet Aqua’, comparing notes with divers about what is going on beneath the waves. He goes on to explore how space technology is being used for water management, from orbital tracking of water quality and pollution to spacecraft-grade recycling systems deployed down on the ground, as well as ambitious efforts to identify marine plastic litter using satellites [video credit: ESA, Produced for SIWI (Stockholm International Water Institute) World Water Week with the support of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs]

• August 23, 2021: Astronaut hopefuls are being asked for their patience as ESA processes over 23,000 applications to its Astronaut and Astronaut (with a disability) vacancies. This number far exceeds the Agency’s most optimistic forecasts. 25)

- Head of space medicine at ESA’s European Astronaut Centre (EAC) Guillaume Weerts is part of the team leading the astronaut selection. He says the number of applications is a positive indication of the level of interest in space activities in Europe, but it will take some time to work through.

- “At ESA, we firmly believe that every application should receive the attention it deserves. With the considerable number of applicants, it simply takes more time than initially foreseen,” explains Guillaume.

- “Upon completion of the pre-screening stage, we found some applications did not fulfil the requirements stated in the applicable documentation, and these applicants were notified immediately. However, more than 80% of all remaining, eligible applications are still under review,” adds Antonella Costa, Human Resources Business Partner at ESA.

- The next step for successful candidates is an invitation to a full day of testing at a facility in Europe. This step has already started and will last until at least the end of the year. Candidates are being invited progressively due to the work involved in this process and the need to consider COVID-19-related travel restrictions.

- “If you have not yet been invited, it does not necessarily mean that your application is not being considered. We ask you for your patience as we process applications and issue these invitations,” says Antonella.

- “We really want to thank everyone who did put themselves forward. We fully understand how important these applications are to candidates, and we are working to let everyone who applied know the outcome of their application as soon as possible.”

- Under the revised processing timeline, it is expected that all candidates will be notified of the outcome of their application by the end of November 2021 at the latest.

Figure 34: On 31 March 2021, the European Space Agency is opening the application process for its first astronaut selection in over a decade. If you meet the minimum requirements and want to join Europe’s journey into space, this is your chance to apply. If you meet the minimum requirements and want to join Europe’s journey into space, this is your chance to apply. Website provides everything you need to know to prepare your application. All applications must be submitted to ESA’s careers website by 28 May 2021 (video credit: ESA) 26)

• July 23, 2021: A drone-snapped image of ESA’s technical heart, the European Space Research and Technology Centre, ESTEC. Nestled beside coastal dunes in Noordwijk in the Netherlands, ESTEC is ESA’s largest establishment and hub of Europe’s space efforts. 27)


Figure 35: Drone photo of ESA/ESTEC taken from the sea side (image credit: ESA, Barretta Media)

- Beside the entrance stands the establishment's restaurant and tower complex built by renowned Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck. Beyond it is the main building, housing ESA laboratories and mission teams, distinguished by a 200-m long main corridor, leading to the rearward Test Centre for evaluating satellites and flight hardware.

- Across the car park to the left is the three-block T-building, home to ESA’s Galileo team, with the Erasmus centre for human spaceflight behind it.

• July 22, 2021: An ESA project has developed satellite antenna the size of a small picture frame, intended for miniature CubeSats. Built by Polish company WiRan the antenna found its first customer as soon as it was finalized, and is already serving in space. 28)

- A fast-growing sector of Europe’s space economy, CubeSats are budget nanosatellites built up from standardized 10 cm cubic units – originally devised for educational uses, but increasingly capable of delivering valuable results from orbit.

- Measuring less than 10 x 10 x 3 cm, including its connector, this new S-band antenna is designed for ‘telemetry, tracking and command’ purposes, meaning it will be used for uplinking commands to a CubeSat and downlinking platform and payload data.

- ESA antenna engineer Benedetta Fiorelli served as technical officer for the antenna project: “It is close to omnidirectional in design with quite a wide beam, so that even if the CubeSat is tumbling in space then its connection with the ground should still continue. That’s not very common but the team has achieved it here.


Figure 36: Photo of the miniature CubeSat S-band antenna (image credit: WiRan)

- “The design challenge has been to fit all the spread power and high gain within the antenna’s physical constraints, because for CubeSats, saving volume is all important. The end result is a high-performing product at a low, competitive cost.”

- The antenna was designed and built by Polish radio frequency hardware design house WiRan, its development supported through ESA’s Polish Industry Incentive Scheme.

- Inspiration for the antenna came out of a previous ESA project with the company, to develop an S-band diplexer for CubeSats, allowing different frequency bands to share a common antenna.

- “We then wanted to produce an antenna compatible with our design,” explains Robert Stefański, Chief Technology Officer of WiRan. “We consulted with the well-known CubeSat company ISISpace in the Netherlands to help define antenna specifications, then ESA decided to support its development.

- WiRan had sufficient confidence in the design that the company invested extra time and money to bring the antenna from an engineering model up to the verge of space-readiness.

- Robert Stefański notes: “Our attitude is to build products that are useful, not just documentation or samples to be hidden in a drawer forever. So the decision to make further investment was obvious, once the prospect of a flight opportunity arose, because those extra levels of readiness make a big difference within the space market.”

- This decision paid off when a commercial customer purchased the antenna for a space mission. The customer’s identity is confidential, but WiRan can confirm their S-band antenna is now operational in space.

- “The occurrence of such an early customer for our antenna – along with other S- and L-band radio frequency hardware products – was a surprise, an unexpected and fortunate result of our technical contacts in the past,” adds Robert Stefański. “We did not plan for it when applying our proposal, but it fitted perfectly our strategy of development for our space products.”

- Benedetta adds: “The CubeSat market is evolving rapidly, with lots of competition. For this new design to have found a customer so fast within the sector shows that supporting it was a good call, that the market place turns out to endorse. Then WiRan demonstrated their own faith in their work by devoting extra resources to it in turn.”

• June 22, 2021: After months of constructive negotiations, ESA and the EU signed today a new Financial Framework Partnership Agreement (FFPA) in a ceremony to celebrate the launch of the new EU space program. 29) 30)

- This will mark a fresh start for space activities in Europe and represents an important step forward in the relationship between ESA and EU. It is also one of the top priorities of Agenda 2025, the roadmap of ESA’s Director General Josef Aschbacher.


Figure 37: ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher signs the Financial Framework Partnership Agreement as EU officials, including Commissioner Thierry Breton (right) look on (image credit: European Commission webcast)

- “This is a major achievement for ESA, recognized for its scientific excellence and technical expertise in designing space systems and ground facilities for the benefit of European citizens,” said ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher.

- “I’m grateful and would like to thank Commissioner Thierry Breton for the trust given to ESA, whose experience in all areas of space activities is rewarded here by an enhanced cooperation between our two institutions, bringing a new ambition for space in Europe.”

- The new EU space program will ensure the continuity and reinforces the very successful flagships such as Galileo, Copernicus and EGNOS, that were designed by ESA, and positioned Europe in a global leading role in the areas of Earth observation and navigation. It will also support new initiatives especially in the domain of secure connectivity, research and development and space commercialization, where ESA will play a key role, also offering new funding opportunities for entrepreneurship.


Figure 38: From left: DG DEFIS (Defence Industry and Space) Director General, Timo Pesonen, Minister for Science, Technology and Higher Education, Manuel Heitor, EU Commissioner for Internal Market, Thierry Breton, ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher and EUSPA Executive Director, Rodrigo da Costa (image credit: EUSPA) 31)

- The agreement signed today represents an EU investment of almost €9 billion in the period of 2021 to 2027, for ESA and European industry to design new-generation systems and programs, crucial for the economy and a green and digital Europe. This funding adds to ESA’s budget and thus consolidates an ambitious set of mandatory and optional programs, as defined by ESA Member States.

- The FFPA agreement defines the roles and responsibilities of all partners, the European Commission, ESA and the new EU space programme agency, EUSPA. It will also ensure the level of autonomy of ESA that is necessary to efficiently develop and implement the programs.

- In the last two decades, ESA successfully developed Copernicus and the Galileo and EGNOS satellite navigation systems. Copernicus is a game changer and rapidly became, through its space component, the biggest provider of free and open Earth observation data in the world. The FFPA will allow this flagship program to be taken to the next level, strengthening ESA’s role as the architect of European Earth observation by developing and building the Sentinels Expansion missions and the Sentinel next generation missions, in order to respond to new emerging and urgent user needs and to guarantee enhanced continuity of current data. Such missions will monitor various aspects of climate change and will support the implementation of key EU policies, such as the Green Deal. This places Europe at the centre of the international space stage, reinforcing its leading role in tackling climate change, monitoring biodiversity and supporting disaster relief.

- Galileo is Europe’s civil global satellite navigation constellation and a major success, being currently the world’s most precise satnav system and offering meter-scale accuracy to more than two billion users around the globe. The FFPA will bring Galileo to the next level with the development of the second generation, a further step forward with the use of many innovative technologies to guarantee unprecedented precision, robustness and flexibility of the system. This will boost European economy with the perspective for many new devices and services to offer positioning capabilities, a true revolution for emerging self-driving cars, autonomous drones and the whole ‘Internet of things’. EGNOS is the world’s most advanced Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS), offering unprecedented, guaranteed position accuracy, not only to the aviation sector but also to other transport and agricultural sectors.

- The FFPA agreement includes additional components under ESA’s responsibility, such as the preparation and design of new flagship secure connectivity GOVSATCOM program, In-Orbit demonstration/Validation service and space safety activities to monitor space hazards.

- ESA is the European Space Agency and Europe’s gateway to space. Its mission is to shape the development of Europe’s space capability and ensure that investment in space continues to deliver benefits to the citizens of Europe and the world. With 22 Members States, ESA is an intergovernmental organization working closely with European industry, national space agencies and the European Union, as well as cooperating with space agencies worldwide.

- ESA covers a wide range of activities, including launchers, science, robotic and human exploration, navigation, Earth observation, telecommunications, space safety and operations. It designs, builds and operates facilities and a fleet of space missions in orbit around the Earth and in the Solar System, and flies European astronauts with international partners.

• 21 May 2021: Metalysis and ESA announce team Malt as winner of the first phase of the Grand Challenge to develop innovative techniques for future lunar settlements. 32)

- "ESA’s Grand Challenge fosters New Space initiatives in Europe and this brings us into contact with dynamic start-up companies such as Malt. Our first challenge, in partnership with Metalysis, moves us closer to our space exploration goals and will stimulate space commercialization in line with ESA’s Agenda 2025,” commented ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher.

- The Metalysis–ESA Grand Challenge was launched in 2020 and offers a prize of €500,000, fully sponsored by Metalysis. It rewards new miniaturized technology that will improve and enhance the Metalysis-patented electrolytic process which is able to extract oxygen and titanium from regolith found on other planets.

- Metalysis, a UK-based metallurgy company, chose team Malt, a Spanish interdisciplinary group active in biomedicine and space applications, as winner of the first phase of the Metalysis–ESA Grand Challenge, and has awarded them €50,000.


Figure 39: Malt comprises scientists and engineers with a background in spectroscopic solutions for applications such as heritage, biomedicine and space applications. They have participated, as part of Spanish public research institutes and universities, in the development of Raman and LIBS spectrometers for space applications such as RLS for ESA ExoMars or SuperCam for NASA Mars 2020 missions (image credit: Malt)

- The aim is now to incorporate this state-of-the-art space technology in civilian society through spinoff industrial applications. The participation of this team in the Metalysis–ESA Grand Challenge is a unique opportunity to demonstrate how laser-based spectroscopic techniques can be reliably used for specific applications, while also serving as a catalyst for the consolidation of this young group of professionals into a long-term and auto-sufficient European-based company.

- Selected by a panel of experts, Malt, provided a detailed description of the functions and processes to devise process-monitoring systems that could fit with Metalysis electrochemical cells on Earth, and accompany the development of the associated technology in space.

- “Participation in this challenge has represented a great opportunity to apply and expand our team expertise in fields ranging from the application of spectroscopic techniques for material processing to space hardware development,” said Guillermo Lopez. “We’re looking forward to the next phase and feel proud that we are contributing to facilitate human over robotic exploration of other planetary bodies, it is a super exciting challenge.”

- The competition has entered its second phase during which a breadboard which best meets the requirements of the challenge, will be awarded the remaining half million euro prize money.

- Ian Mellor, Managing Director at Metalysis commented: “We were impressed by the potential solution proposed by the Malt team, drawing on their expertise in the development of spectroscopic techniques, and applying this to the in situ process monitoring of the Metalysis process, during Phase 1 of the Grand Challenge. Furthermore, we look forward to following progression of the concept throughout Phase 2, to ultimately testing the hardware in our metal powder and oxygen production technology.”

Towards a lunar economy

- As ESA and other agencies prepare to send humans back to the Moon – this time to stay – technologies that make use of materials available in space, called in situ resource utilization (ISRU), are seen as key to sustainability, and a stepping stone in humankind's adventure to Mars and farther into the Solar System.

- ESA encourages European industry to invest in the development of optimized technologies and systems that support future space exploration, the added benefit being that these ideas can also address sustainability and scarcity of resources on Earth.

- The ESA Grand Challenge is part of the Agency’s commitment to foster new European entrepreneurs, innovation-led start-up companies and new ventures.

- Metalysis has spent more than a decade developing and scaling up its electrochemical technology; a process that converts refined oxides and ores directly into valuable metal alloy powders used in 3D printing for aerospace, automotive and high-value manufacturing.

- This electrolysis technology provides a potential efficient solution for ISRU as well as terrestrial applications. However, the direction of development for lunar or martian ISRU may be different for terrestrial applications.

- Metalysis was recently awarded ESA funding for its ‘The Metalysis Fray-Farthing-Chen (FFC) Cambridge process for extra-terrestrial oxygen production from ISRU’ project, which forms part of ESA’s Space Resources Strategy and is carried out within ESA’s GSTP (General Support Technology Program).

• 12 May 2021: Nestled beside coastal dunes in Noordwijk in the Netherlands, ESTEC is ESA’s largest establishment and hub of Europe’s space efforts. Combining the downward view angle with defocused surrounding terrain, known as ‘tilt-shifting’, makes the entire sprawling complex appear miniaturized. 33)


Figure 40: An aerial image of ESA’s technical heart, the European Space Research and Technology Centre, ESTEC, making it look as if you could pick it up in your hands. This photo was taken during a hobby flight by ESA biomedical engineer Arnaud Runge.

- On the dune side stands the main building, home to ESA laboratories and mission teams, distinguished by an almost 200-m long main corridor. The central white-hued lab building extends forward from it. The small white dome beside it houses ESA’s Large Diameter Centrifuge for high-gravity testing.

- To the left of the main building is the restaurant and tower complex built by renowned Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck. On its right can be seen ESTEC’s Test Centre for full-scale testing of satellites, equipped with a suite of simulation facilities to reproduce every aspect of the space environment.

- In front of the car park to the left is the three-block T-building, home to ESA’s Galileo team, in the centre stands the Erasmus centre for human spaceflight with the headquarters of ESA’s Technology Transfer and Patent Office beside it.

• 10 May 2021: Today, ESA opened its Global Space Markets Challenge. This competition is intended to be a springboard into international markets for small promising space-based companies in Europe, specialized in upstream and downstream activities. 34)

- Developments within small European companies continue to advance Europe’s expertise in technologies, create jobs, stimulate the space economy and benefit daily life through applications such as telecommunication, science data, Earth observation and navigation. This competition serves to extend their reach into international markets.

- All entrants should meet the criteria set out in the general terms and conditions of the competition and send in their applications to ESA by 23 June 2021.

- Six SMEs (including start-up companies) with excellent internationalisation plans will win prizes and promotion opportunities, including the chance to showcase their business at the 72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), expected to take place in Dubai from 25–29 October 2021 and to connect with the investor community and with financial institutions.

- European space revenue in the upstream domain accounts for €9 billion – 35% of the global market. Revenue generated from downstream applications accounts for €70 billion which is just 25% of the global market.

- ESA, in line with its Agenda 2025, has set up this competition to grow and support European space-based businesses by improving their visibility and worldwide competitiveness to help them be part of opportunities in the global space market.

- Winners of the upstream category will also be offered the opportunity to attend an ESA event, such as the Industry Space Days. At this event winners of this category will be offered a company booth for a chance to network, create partnerships and introduce their business to a wider community of space-based companies and potential customers.

- In the downstream category, Eurisy, a European non-profit association of more than 15 national space agencies and other organisations involved in space activities, which is partnered with ESA in this competition, will offer the top six downstream companies, the opportunity to have their products or services showcased in a virtual reality environment. This environment will be available online as well as through a virtual reality headset which will be used by Eurisy and ESA at international events and fairs.

- On 10 September, ESA will announce 12 finalists. On 28 September, the delegates of the Industrial Policy Evolution Working Group (IPE-WG) will select the six best-placed applicants who will be proposed for nomination as winners to ESA’s Director General Josef Aschbacher who will grant the awards: three for the upstream category, and three for the downstream category.


Figure 41: On 20–22 September 2016, ESA opened its doors to welcome a record 1200 people from industry attending Industry Space Days 2016 at ESA’s Technology Centre ESTEC in Noordwijk, the Netherlands (image credit: ESA, M. Shaw)

• 30 April 2021: Lithuania signed an Association Agreement with ESA on 28 April 2021. This Association Agreement between ESA and the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, builds on the successful results achieved under the previous frameworks of cooperation and enters into force for a duration of seven years. Comprising 18 Articles and two Annexes, it orchestrates the strengthening of Lithuania’s relations with ESA. 35)

- Ms Aušrin> Armonait>, Minister of Economy and Innovation, signed the Association Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and ESA on 28 April in Vilnius. Associate membership will become effective upon notification that respective internal procedures have been completed.

- Following its unanimous approval by Council, the Association Agreement was signed by ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher on 18 March 2021 at ESA Headquarters, in presence of the Ambassador of Lithuania to France.

- For about a decade, ESA and Lithuania have been engaged in various forms of cooperation, first under a general Cooperation Agreement, followed by a European Cooperating State (ECS) Agreement. The latter entered into force on 28 September 2015, with the signature of the Plan for European Cooperating States (PECS) Charter, and was lately extended for 12 months, until 27 September 2021.

- The Association Agreement will allow direct Lithuanian participation in the ESA’s optional programs, subject to the unanimous approval of respective participating states. Lithuanian delegates and advisers will be entitled to attend meetings of ESA Council and its subordinate bodies, and to vote on questions relating to the activities and programs in which Lithuania participates. The Lithuanian delegation to ESA is led by Mr Edvinas Grikšas from the Innovation Policy Division of the Ministry. The ambitions of Lithuania in space have also led to the establishment of the Lithuanian Space Office on 4 July 2019, currently headed by Ms Egl> Elena Šatait>, within the Agency for Science, Innovation and Technology (MITA).

- The key existing competences in Lithuania can be summarized as follows: nanosatellites, propulsion system components, infrared based technologies, Earth observation downstream applications, optoelectronics (in particular laser technologies and photonics), life sciences, physical sciences, and radio frequency systems.

- Lithuania benefited from a significant legacy in space R&D. The fourth oldest observatory in Europe, the Vilnius University Astronomical Observatory, was established in 1753. Lithuanian scientists and engineers participated in Soviet aerospace activities, by developing systems and elements for the Mars programme, the Buran space shuttle, the Lunokhod rover, as well as carrying plant research in scientific satellites Bion-10 and Bion-11 and the Salyut and Mir space stations.

- In the 1990s, the expertise gained was used in NASA and ESA programs. In particular, Lithuanian astronomers participated in Hipparcos, SOHO and Gaia, supplying an analysis of the photometric systems, peculiar stars and interstellar extinction.

- The first two Lithuanian self-made nanosatellites (LituanicaSAT-1 and LitSat-1) were launched in January 2014 to the International Space Station, then deployed that February by JAXA astronaut Koichi Wakata. They tested new technologies prior to reentering Earth’s atmosphere in September 2014. The third Lithuanian satellite (LituanicaSAT-2) was launched on 23 June 2017 by an Indian PSLV-XL rocket.

- ESA has now established formal relations with all the states that acceded to the European Union since 2004, and are thereby associated to the definition of an overall European Space Policy and participating with full rights and obligations in the EU Copernicus and Galileo programs.

- Lithuania followed Hungary, the Czech Republic, Romania, Poland, Estonia, Slovenia and Latvia in joining the ECS status, a frame for cooperation dating back to 2001. The five first countries have become Member States between 2008 and 2015, while Slovenia and Latvia became Associate Members in 2016 and 2020 respectively. Lithuania was followed as an ECS by Slovakia, Bulgaria and Cyprus, while Malta and Croatia have concluded general Cooperation Agreements in 2012 and 2018.

- ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher stated that he was very much looking forward to the concrete implementation of the Association Agreement, through Lithuania’s steadily extending participation in ESA’s programs and activities.

• 07 April 2021: ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher has worked with our Member States to define new priorities and goals for ESA for the coming years. 36)


Figure 42: As of 1 March 2021, ESA has a new Director General: Dr Josef Aschbacher, who has taken up duty at ESA Headquarters in Paris, France (image credit: ESA, S. Corvaja)

- The Director General has set high ambitions for space in Europe – while ESA has a huge role to play, it also requires cooperation with the European Union, space industry and scientific community and the co-creation of a new vision for Europe in space.

- ESA Agenda 2025 outlines the challenges ahead – in the first instance for the next four years – but also for the longer term in maintaining and growing Europe’s role in the space economy. This means working with the European Union and with companies of all sizes involved in the space industry, as well as inspiring and encouraging educators, entrepreneurs and the next generation of space scientists and engineers, and all the professions needed to make great space missions. It also means developing the kind of programs and missions that ESA Member States can be proud of – new flagship missions in cooperation with European Union member states, and ESA-led missions to expand our knowledge as well as protecting Earth and its orbit.

- “Where does Europe want to be in 15 years from now?” asks the Director General. “Europe means of course the European Space Agency but also all the stakeholders in Europe – Member States, industry, the European Commission.

- “We have defined an Agenda, which for the next four years, puts ESA and puts space on track so we can be among the top space agencies in the world.”

- Read the Executive Summary, outlining five immediate priorities for ESA and a vision for the next four.

- Read the full Agenda 2025 document.

• 18 March 2021: ERS-1 satellite replica, now at the entrance of ESA/ESTEC. — Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, essential testing for future space missions continues in ESTEC's laboratories and its full-sized satellite Test Centre. 37)


Figure 43: A replica of Europe's first radar satellite ERS-1 stands beside the entrance of ESA's largest establishment and technical heart: ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology Centre, in Noordwijk, the Netherlands (photo credit: ESA, G. Porter)

• 15 March 2021: This is ESA is an illustrated guide to what ESA is and what we do. It shows a range of our activities and missions at the cutting edge of space design and technology, from making space safer to monitoring climate change and exploring our Solar System. Available in all Member State languages, the brochure comes with an attractive space poster – both can be downloaded here. 38)


Figure 44: This is the visual component of the brochure, which takes you on a journey through ESA’s activities, showcasing how ESA is making space work for the benefit of humankind. The poster encapsulates these achievements in one dynamic image. But integrating our diverse space activities, including past, present and future missions, into one cohesive color poster was a challenge. In this interview, the poster’s designer explains how he achieved this and where he found his inspiration (image credit: ESA) 39)

- The poster represents some of ESA’s most influential space missions spanning the past 30 years, as well as some of the ambitious science and discovery programs planned for the next decade. The brief was given to designer Attilio Brancaccio, who also designed ESA’s Columbus anniversary posters and our collection of Space Safety and Security images.

- He explains that the initial approach to designing the poster was very much a collaborative process with the ESA team: “Initially we experimented with greater separation of the different areas representing the past, present and future missions, in terms of composition and layout. However, the main challenge was to create fluidity between the storylines and to get it to work in a balanced way.”

- The next approach was to create a visual timeline: “Of course, it’s not an exact timeline because there are areas where the past and present merge together. For example, the International Space Station (ISS) is shown near to Orion, which is an upcoming mission and above we have Rosetta, which is a mission that ended in 2016.”

- To create a cohesive image, diagonal lines were used to separate the different types of missions, while maintaining a fluid and dynamic feel. “If you look at the poster, you see there are five different bands – but you see it as just one design,” says Attilio. He adds that he then focused on balancing the different elements to find the best way to visually represent ESA’s story and heritage.

• 05 March 2021: Do you want to visit all ESA establishments and see what we’re doing to explore space and protect our planet? Now you can, by taking virtual tours from your own homes, thanks to the #DiscoverESA interactive experience. 40)

- #DiscoverESA gives you an opportunity to explore the full range of ESA’s activities through a set of thematic journeys: Sending Europe to the Moon, Improving Life on Earth, Building the Best Tools, Protecting our Environment, Safeguarding Space Activities and Understanding our Universe. During each journey, you will see how our various establishments work together to achieve our agency’s goals.

- #DiscoverESA provides you with a chance to visit all eight of our ESA establishments across Europe, including some unique insider views, something that would not be feasible otherwise. Many of these Establishments have not previously opened their doors to the public, making this experience all the more special.

- The #DiscoverESA platform offers a dynamic experience, with visitors choosing which journey to embark on, with the possibility of stopping, skipping or going further to learn more. Visitors can actively determine what they watch and learn, and pursue the paths that most interest them.

- Start your virtual journey here!

• 03 March 2021: Why does ESA send missions beyond our Earth? To explore unknown worlds, and better understand our place in the Universe. But that answer only gives part of the picture. The first thing people do when they first reach space is to turn back to see our homeworld. Looking down on our planet from above allows ESA with its global partners to monitor climate, disasters and environmental changes – to work together to protect our home. 41)

Figure 45: And danger comes from above as well as below: a close eye on our stormy Sun is vital to gather early warning of harmful space weather, while keeping an eye out for incoming asteroids. ESA has a responsibility to preserve the space environment into the future, by tackling the problem of orbital debris. Space connects us, powers our economies and improves all our lives, as well fostering innovation and inspiration. So ESA works to care for space, just as we do for Earth and its citizens (video credit: ESA)

• 01 March 2021: As of today, 1 March 2021, ESA has a new Director General: Dr Josef Aschbacher, who has taken up duty at ESA Headquarters in Paris, France. 42)

- The ESA Council appointed Dr Aschbacher in December 2020 as the next Director General of ESA, for a period of four years. He succeeds Prof. Jan Wörner, whose term of office ended in February 2021.

- Dr Aschbacher was previously ESA Director of Earth Observation Programs and Head of ESRIN, ESA’s centre for Earth Observation in Frascati, near Rome.


Figure 46: Photo of Josef Aschbacher (image credit: ESA)

• 10 February 2021: Our new brochure introduces ESA’s R&D department: the engineers charged with inventing the new technologies needed for Europe to push further out into space, and develop the novel services improving our lives here on Earth. 43)

- From hypersonic flight to space debris removal, lunar caving to asteroid mining, we’re working on it. When most people hear about topics like these, they think of science fiction; our engineers see puzzles to be solved.

- ESA’s Directorate of Technology, Engineering and Quality is one of ten Directorates making up the Agency. Our engineers know how to make otherwise impossible missions happen and keep Europe competitive in the global tech race.


Figure 47: Protective goggles. Engineer Giuditta Montesanti is pictured wearing protective goggles while preparing for a test firing of space thrusters in ESA’s Propulsion Laboratory. Lasers are used to align plasma-measuring probes within thruster plumes. Based at ESA’s technical centre ESTEC in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, the Propulsion Laboratory specializes in the testing of ion engines and other thrusters that operate outside Earth’s atmosphere (image credit: ESA, Guus Schoonewille)

- When the majority of new ESA missions are dreamt up, the technology that makes them possible does not exist – yet. It is our job to identify the enabling innovations required, make them real and bring them up to a sufficient state of performance and reliability so that the right technology is ready at just the right time.

- We host an impressive range of in-house expertise on space technologies, made up of specialists covering every aspect of the space environment, and work in partnership with many of Europe’s most advanced companies and research institutions.

- Our experts set the course of research and development internally, and in projects done with industry and academia, from leading aerospace firms to tiny, smart start-ups.

- This is a crucial role, not just for future ESA missions but also for the wider European space industry.

- Innovation is an essential element of competitiveness and European industry must compete to survive, winning contract after contract on the global open market. Unlike many others, Europe’s space sector receives minimal government or military subsidies and more than pays its own way. If it didn’t, most ESA missions would swiftly become unaffordable, as would ESA itself.

- Advanced missions need advanced testing. To save time and money we offer industry unique infrastructure, which would not make economic sense to develop multiple times at multiple places for separate missions. We have pooled resources to make world-beating space laboratories and satellite-scale test facilities available to all European space (and indeed non-space) companies.

- From lab experiments to industrial prototypes, from dazzling ideas to reliable instruments, it’s imagination and dedication that drives our innovation.

• 28 January 2021: While most ESA personnel work from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, essential activities continue to take place on site across Agency establishments while following social distancing protocols. 44)


Figure 48: In ESA’s Materials and Electrical Components Laboratory – one of a suite of labs based at the ESTEC technical center in Noordwijk, the Netherlands – testing has continued on critical elements for several missions and projects (image credit: ESA, Nuno Dias)

- For instance, the lab supported the ‘bakeout’ of the Filter Wheel Assembly for the PROBA-3 formation flying mission’s main ASPIICS instrument – which will image the Sun’s ghostly surrounding atmosphere, or ‘corona’ from one satellite while another satellite blocks out the blinding solar disk.

- The development of this payload was on the critical path, and the test had to be performed at very short notice just before Christmas. The successful bakeout took place with full personal protection measures in place, in order to host the customers arriving from abroad with the flight hardware.

- Focusing on mission external elements, thermal endurance tests are currently underway on multilayer insulation (MLI) materials and solar cell assemblies. These tests are being carried out using the XTES (eXtreme Temperature Exposure System) and XTES2 facilities – this latter facility having been procured and commissioned during the pandemic – which can reach and maintain incredibly high temperatures for long periods of time. For example, components of an MLI for the JUICE mission to Jupiter are undergoing a three-month test to address their thermal stability under mission representative conditions.

- The lab is also supporting the development of new radiation-resistant coatings, by exposing them to ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet light in the Synergistic Temperature Accelerated Radiation 2 (STAR2) facility).

- All the environmental tests are aided by materials characterization and analysis with state-of-the-art equipment, such as microscopic and spectroscopic analysis, thermo-optical measurements, thermal analysis and more. So the lab’s work has not halted, despite COVID-19 restrictions, but is proceeding as smoothly as possible.

• 05 January 2021: ESA Preview 2021. 45)

Figure 49: As the world leaves annus horribilis 2020 behind it looks towards 2021 with a mixture of relief and expectations. And so it goes for the European Space Agency, ESA who’s future looks bright and very much exciting. 2021 will be a year in which Vega-C will make its maiden flight, two ESA astronauts start long-duration missions aboard the International Space Station, BepiColombo and Solar Orbiter rendezvous at Venus and ESA says goodbye to its Director General Jan Wörner as his tenure ends (video credit: ESA)

• 27 December 2020: An agreement between the United Kingdom and the European Union will allow the UK to remain in the Copernicus Earth observation program after it formally exits the EU. 46)

- The UK and EU announced a broad agreement Dec. 24 governing the UK’s relationship with the EU once the country formally withdraws from the European Union, a process known as Brexit. The UK was facing a Jan. 1 deadline to complete a deal governing its relationship with the EU on issues such as trade, law enforcement and participation in EU-led programs.

- That agreement, more than 1,200 pages long, includes participation in some EU space programs. Specifically, it allows the U.K. to participate in Copernicus through the seven-year span of the EU’s latest multiannual financial framework, which starts in 2021.

- Under the deal, the UK “shall participate in the Copernicus component of the Space program and benefit from Copernicus services and products in the same way as other participating countries.” This includes the Copernicus Security Service, which uses Copernicus satellite data for border and maritime surveillance. A separate agreement between the EU and UK is required to define the UK’s use of that service.

- The deal ends uncertainty about what role, if any, the UK would have in EU space programs. Copernicus was particularly complicated because it is a joint program between the EU and European Space Agency, with both organizations contributing funding. While the UK is leaving the European Union, it remains a member state of ESA.

- “We hope that the UK can join the program in Brussels. This is the default option and this is what we hope for,” said Josef Aschbacher, director of ESA’s Earth observation programs, at a Dec. 17 press conference to announce he would be the agency’s next director general, effective in July 2021.

- The situation is different with Galileo, the EU satellite navigation program, which is not covered by the Brexit deal. Those programs are “100% financed” by the EU, with ESA as the implementing agency, noted Jan Wörner, current ESA director general, at the Dec. 17 briefing.

- Copernicus, by contrast, features “mixed participation” with ESA funding development of initial satellites in the Sentinel series and the EU paying for later satellites. “There we have some issues, especially also with industrial participation,” he said.

- A third EU space program, albeit much smaller than Galileo and Copernicus, is the EU Space Surveillance and Tracking program for space situational awareness. The UK government and private satellite operators based there will continue to have access to those services under the deal.

• 17 December 2020: Today, the ESA Council appointed Dr Josef Aschbacher as the next Director General of ESA, for a period of four years. He will succeed Prof. Jan Wörner, whose term of office ends on 30 June 2021. 47)

- Dr Aschbacher is currently ESA Director of Earth Observation Programs and Head of ESRIN, ESA’s center for Earth Observation near Rome.

- Born in Austria, Dr Aschbacher studied at the University of Innsbruck, where he obtained Masters and PhD degrees in Natural Sciences. He has over three decades of experience working in international organizations, including ESA, the European Commission, the Austrian Space Agency and Asian Institute of Technology.


Figure 50: Photo of Josef Aschbacher (image credit: ESA)

• 15 December 2020: Despite the challenges of 2020, ESA maintained its momentum on key missions and saw the launches of Solar Orbiter, Vega’s 16th flight and Sentinel-6, which are all covered in this full-color publication. It was a good year for amazing space pictures, with unprecedented images of the Sun, selfies taken by BepiColombo as it swung by Earth and then Venus, as well as incredible images of deep space from Hubble, which marked its 30th anniversary. Highlights 2020 also includes in-depth articles on the evolution of Vega launchers, ESA’s telecoms Partnership Projects and our future space weather missions. ESA Highlights 2020. 48)

• 18 November 2020: ESA’s Hertz radio frequency test chamber will be playing a supporting role in a forthcoming production at the Dutch National Opera in Amsterdam. 49)

- The cavernous foam-lined space – located in ESA’s ESTEC technical centre in the Netherlands – was filmed by a team from filming company WE ARE WILL, along with a neighboring clean room, to serve as a futuristic backdrop to the events on stage.

- In next year’s Upload, a father and daughter travel to a very special clinic. The parent wants to give up his physical body and have his mind uploaded into a digital version of himself, to try and escape past trauma and achieve immortality. But why did he make this choice, and how will this change his relationship with his daughter?

- “The show is a hybrid of styles, set well into the future,” explains Michel Van der Aa, composer and director of the opera.

- ‘Hertz is an amazing, very theatrical looking space – which doubles in our production as the clinic’s scanning chamber. Then, for our climax, final stage of the uploading takes place in the other chamber we filmed at ESTEC, a clean room for satellite storage inside the Test Centre.”


Figure 51: Upload receives its premiere in Amsterdam on 20 March 2021 (photo credit: ESA-SJM Photography)

• 13 November 2020: Today, ESA signed contracts with Thales Alenia Space in France and in Italy, and Airbus in Spain to build three of the new high-priority Copernicus satellite missions: CHIME, CIMR and LSTM, respectively. Each mission is set to help address different major environmental challenges such as sustainable agriculture management, food security, the monitoring of polar ice supporting the EU Integrated Policy for the Arctic, and all will be used to understand climate change. 50)

- There are six Copernicus high-priority Sentinel Expansion missions planned to complement the current capabilities of the Sentinels and address EU policy priorities and gaps in Copernicus user needs.

- The development and operations of these Sentinel Expansion missions will be co-financed between the European Commission and ESA, subject to budget availability. These new industrial contacts kick off the key design phases for the missions, with the continuation to be confirmed in 2021.

- ESA has recently signed contracts for the development of two of the other six missions: the Copernicus Carbon Dioxide Monitoring mission and the Copernicus Polar Ice and Snow Topography Altimeter mission.

- These three new contracts also come at a time when industry and business are suffering from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

- ESA’s Director of Earth Observation Programs, Josef Aschbacher, said, “We are thrilled to sign these contracts with industry today. Not only because once built, each mission will address real environmental challenges and further Europe’s flagship Copernicus program, but also because we need to help keep our industrial partners in good shape during COVID-19, which has brought untold damage to the economy and employment security.

- “Despite the issues surrounding COVID-19, it is critical that we continue forging new space technologies, and continue developing, building and launching satellites that lead to new knowledge and services that ultimately benefit all humankind.”

- With a contract worth €455 million, Thales Alenia Space France will lead the development of the CHIME (Copernicus Hyperspectral Imaging Mission for the Environment). The contract was signed in the presence of Bruno Le Maire, French Minister of the Economy and Finance. The mission will carry a unique visible to shortwave infrared spectrometer.

- It will provide routine hyperspectral observations to support new and enhanced services for sustainable agricultural and biodiversity management, as well to characterize soil properties, which is key to vegetation health. The mission will complement Copernicus Sentinel-2 for applications such as land-cover mapping.

- ESA signed the contract for the development of the CIMR (Copernicus Imaging Microwave Radiometer), mission with Thales Alenia Space Italy in the presence of the Under Secretary of the Council of Ministers of Italy, Riccardo Fraccaro. The contract is worth €495 million.

- Carrying a novel ‘conically-scanning’ multi-frequency microwave radiometer, the mission will measure sea-surface temperature, sea-ice concentration and sea-surface salinity. It will also observe a wide range of other sea-ice parameters such as sea-ice thickness and sea-ice drift. CIMR is being developed in response to high-priority requirements from key Arctic user communities and will support the EU Integrated Policy for the Arctic.

- The contract, worth €380 million,for the Copernicus LSTM (Land Surface Temperature Monitoring) mission, was signed with Airbus Spain in the presence of Pedro Duque, Spanish Minister of Science and Innovation.

- It marks the first time that Spain will lead the development of a Copernicus Sentinel mission. LSTM will carry a high spatial-temporal thermal-infrared sensor to deliver observations of land-surface temperature. Satellite data analysis for mapping, monitoring and forecasting Earth's natural resources helps to understand what, when and where changes are taking place. In particular, this mission will respond to the needs of European farmers to make agricultural production more sustainable as water shortages increase and changes in the environment take place.

- While these contracts are for the development of these three new exciting missions, full implementation relies on further agreements. This includes an agreement between ESA and the European Commission, including a joint positive decision by the Commission and ESA and their Member States to go from Phase B2 to Phase C/D for the prototype missions and to procure the recurrent satellite units. This decision point is planned in the second half of 2021.

- The European Copernicus flagship program provides Earth observation and in situ data, as well as a broad range of services for environmental monitoring and protection, climate monitoring and natural disaster assessment to improve the quality of life of European citizens.

- Copernicus is the biggest provider of Earth observation data in the world – and while the EU is at the helm of this environmental monitoring program, ESA develops, builds and launches the dedicated satellites. It also operates some of the missions and ensures the availability of data from third party missions.

- The European Commission’s Head of Unit for Earth Observation, Mauro Facchini, said, “Built on cooperation between the European Commission and ESA, Copernicus has been an outstanding success not only for Europe, but also for the rest of the world. Key environmental data and derived products are freely available for services and data users to improve the daily lives of all citizens. We are extremely pleased that these contracts are an important step towards the expansion of the suite of satellites delivering critical information, furthering the Copernicus program as a whole.”

• 04 November 2020: Hungary celebrates its fifth anniversary in ESA after becoming ESA’s 22nd and most recent Member State on 4 November 2015. 51)

- Hungary was the first central European State to sign a Cooperation Agreement with ESA in 1991. But by the time this cooperation began, Hungary could already look back on an extended tradition in space activities. With its participation in the Interkosmos program, Hungary sent the first Hungarian cosmonaut, Bertalan Farkas, into space on 26 May 1980.


Figure 52: Flag of Hungary (image credit: ESA)

- Hungary also became the first European Cooperating State with the signing of the ECS (European Cooperating State) Agreement on 7 April 2003. This was followed shortly after by the signing of the PECS Agreement (Plan for European Cooperating States) on 5 November 2003, which was extended until Hungary’s accession to the ESA Convention. The signing ceremony took place at the Palace of Arts in Budapest on 24 February 2015 and the ratification instrument was deposited with the Government of France on 4 November 2015.

- Today, Hungary is an active and successful member of the ESA family. This was shown at the Space19+ conference, where the Hungarian contributions to ESA optional programs made a significant leap forward in strongly focusing on Human Spaceflight, Space Safety, Earth Observation and Telecommunications. Compared to the 2016 Ministerial Council with a contribution of €16.1 million, Hungary’s participation rose to €97 million at Space19+ (Figure 84).

- Most recently, the first Hungarian Industry Days were organized in Budapest in October 2020. These were a big success, with 118 participants and great opportunities for Hungarian organizations to deepen their knowledge on ESA technology and application programs, and to also develop their network with the large European space companies.

- Aside from industrial involvement, Hungary has also taken part in several ESA educational activities, including ESA radar courses, student parabolic flight campaigns and the European Student Moon Orbiter project. Hungary’s first satellite, MaSat-1, a CubeSat-type satellite, developed and built by students at the Technical University of Budapest, was launched on the Vega rocket maiden flight in 2012.

- Since becoming ESA’s 22nd Member State in 2015, Hungary has proved to be an active and reliable member of ESA and the European space community with its involvement in more than 60 ESA projects, and an additional 114 contracts awarded during the preceding 12-year period of the PECS Agreement.

• 27 October 2020: Space technologies and satellite applications are poised to power green economic development in Europe in the coming years, creating jobs and boosting prosperity. 52)

- ESA has several green initiatives to foster economic recovery from the coronavirus pandemic while promoting clean living and digital transformation. They seek to use disruptive technologies to transform urban green areas, improve air quality and offer space-based services for marine energy.


Figure 53: Space technologies and satellite applications are poised to power green economic development in Europe in the coming years, creating jobs and boosting prosperity (image credit: ESA)

- The agency is also planning to use space and 5G technologies to enable intelligent transport services. In smart cities, circularity can be enhanced by using space technologies to support public transport shifts towards zero carbon emissions and the dynamic mapping system of roads and traffic signals.

- “I strongly believe that remote sensing and further smart technologies will help humanity to fix the live-threatening impacts from climate heating and biodiversity loss,” says Alfred Schumm, Director of Innovation, Science and Technologies at the World Wide Fund for Nature in Germany.

- “Time is running out and actions are a must. Soon we will be able to monitor indicators for a sustainable economy, so that society will be able to take informed decisions for the benefit of nature and people.”

- Following the pandemic-induced economic crash, the European Commission proposed a major recovery plan that incorporates an earlier initiative called the Green Deal, which aims to make Europe carbon neutral by 2050, alongside an effort for digitization transformation.

- In response, ESA is inviting companies to start work on initiatives that will ignite the European economy while promoting green development and supporting the shift to digital services. It is offering financial and business support to entrepreneurs and small and medium-sized businesses to bring their ideas to market.

- The initiatives cover areas ranging from energy efficiency to responsible agri-tech, from smart buildings and the management of urban green spaces, to transportation and restoring biodiversity.

- ESA is working with the Mirpuri Foundation, which supports sustainable development. “At the Mirpuri Foundation, we believe in the power of innovation and technology, working towards a more sustainable future. As partner of ESA, we can only praise its green initiatives and hope that they will ultimately generate a positive impact on the planet,” says Ana Agostinho, its Head of Public Relations.

- For example, satellites applications can be used to help plan, monitor, predict and improve renewable energy production, especially when complemented by artificial intelligence, the internet of things and remotely piloted aircraft systems.

- Green construction can make use of space-based data and internet-of-things sensors to locate new buildings in ecologically safe zones, conserve energy, reduce the heat island effect and support green renovations.

- Digital technologies, satellite navigation and satellite communication can improve smart mobility and logistics services, and help develop versatile transport plans improving air quality and energy efficiency.

- Finally the “Farm to Fork” program, enabled by satellite navigation, can enhance supply chains and reveal the origins of food to consumers. Satellite applications can improve responsible food production, prevent waste and food loss, and aid sustainable food processing and distribution.

- Ernesto Ciorra, Chief Innovability Officer at the Enel energy group, says: “Partnering with ESA gives Enel the opportunity to further boost the energy transition, by unlocking the tremendous value that can be generated through the application of space technologies in the energy sector.

- “We are committed to addressing what we call ‘global innovability challenges’. We will keep on striving for our planet, that’s why we want our network of partners to be composed of innovative, sustainable and open-minded members.”

- Rita Rinaldo, Head of the Partner-led and Thematic Initiatives in ESA’s Downstream Business Applications Department, said: “Over the past decade, ESA has initiated about 90 activities that relate to the EU’s Green Deal objectives. This represents an investment by National Delegations of more than €40 million, which doubles if industry’s contribution is considered.

- “ESA is well placed to use space to promote green growth in Europe and beyond, thanks to the extended network of partners that we have established, from Municipalities, to corporate networks, industrial associations and foundations active in the green economy. Entrepreneurs and small and medium-sized enterprises can access financial and business support to bring their ideas to market. We look forward to working with our partners, industry and other stakeholders to revitalize the European economy.”

• 21 October 2020: As space missions have become more complex, the teamwork needed on the ground has also become more sophisticated and challenging. Through almost four decades at the forefront of Europe’s voyages in space, Paolo Ferri went from Operations Engineer on the Eureca mission to Operations Manager of the four-spacecraft Cluster mission and then the Rosetta mission, followed by serving as Flight Director on Rosetta, Venus Express and GOCE. His career has been capped off by eight years as Head of Mission Operations for the Agency, overseeing all of ESA’s robotic mission operations. 53)

Figure 54: In five episodes of ‘Leadership at Mission Control’, Paolo takes us through major events in his career at ESA, covering cornerstone missions, first attempts, overcoming technical challenges, building diverse teams, working under pressure and solving the unexpected problems that are part of any space endeavor (video credit: ESA)

- In his third masterclass, Paolo shares what he has learnt going from an engineering expert with complete and specific knowledge of a single mission, to being responsible at a senior manager level for the success of dozens of missions operated by international teams each as diverse, unique and complex as the spacecraft they fly.

- With 36 years’ of experience at ESA, Paolo Ferri is responsible for mission operations, and he has played a leading role in ensuring the success of missions like Eureca, ESA’s first-ever reusable satellite; Cluster, one of the longest-flying science missions; Venus Express, Europe’s first exploration of Earth’s ‘evil twin’; and Rosetta, humanity’s first landing on a comet.

• 20 October 2020: A Madonna and Child painting with a history almost as enigmatic as the Mona Lisa’s smile has been identified as an authentic Raphael canvas by the Czech company InsightART, which used a robotic X-ray scanner to investigate the artwork. 54)

- The 500-year-old painting had long been attributed to Raphael, a contemporary of Leonardo Di Vinci and Michelangelo, but doubts about its authenticity occurred during its recent history.

- The Madonna and Child painting’s turbulent backstory encompasses some of Europe’s great historical figures, as well as violent fights and lucrative art deals. Commissioned by Pope Leo X, it has hung in the Vatican as well as passing through the hands of the French royal family and Napoleon. However at the end of the 19th century, the painting disappeared from the general consciousness. It is now part of a private collection.

- InsightART’s robotic X-ray scanner had earlier been used to identify a previously unknown painting by Vincent van Gogh. The machine uses a particle detector developed at CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics, that was repurposed for space exploration and manufactured by the Czech company ADVACAM.


Figure 55: That Raphael was in fact the creator of the masterpiece has been confirmed by expert studies from around the world as well as an international advisory board. This has now been further supported by InsightART, a start-up company based in the Czech Invest-operated ESA business incubation centre in Prague, which uses cosmic detector technology to examine artworks(image credit: Jiri Lautenkratz, InsightART)

- “This technology – which is also used to measure radiation at the International Space Station – is capable of detecting and counting single photons, as well as establishing their exact wavelength,” says Josef Uher, chief technical officer of InsightART.


Figure 56: Spectral X-ray images of the Madonna and Child painting (image credit: Jiri Lautenkratz, InsightART)

- “While the standard X-ray machine only creates a black and white image, the RToo scanner provides ‘color’ – or spectral – X-ray images, which allow the materials to stand out on the basis of their elemental composition,” he says.

- The artwork was scanned in great detail – from the foundation layers to the final glazes, revealing the internal structure of Raphael’s painting in detail.

- “During this process it became clear that the work was executed layer by layer by Raphael, without the aid of his workshop assistants and apprentices,” says Jiří Lauterkranc, an art restorer and co-founder of InsightART.

- The company received business advice and financial support from the ESA business incubation centre in Prague.

- “We are used to different kinds of technological applications which make use of satellite data, navigation systems, airplanes or satellites. However, the combination of space technology and art is very unconventional – this is the only project,” says Michal Kuneš, project manager of the ESA business incubation centre.

- The centre is part of ESA Space Solutions, which is the go-to place for great business ideas involving space in all areas of society and economy. Its mission is to support entrepreneurs in Europe in the development of businesses using satellite applications and space technology.


Figure 57: Madonna and Child optical and X-ray images (image credit: Jiri Lautenkratz, InsightART)

• 18 September 2020: Europe’s space community came together through two days of virtual presentations and business-to-business meetings during ESA’s online Industry Space Days on 16–17 September. 55)


Figure 58: ESA’s Industry Space Days on 16–17 September 2020 brought Europe’s space community together through two days of virtual presentations, round table discussions and thousands of prescheduled business-to-business meetings (image credit: ESA)

- A record 1900 participants registered for the event. Companies, including hundreds of small and medium-sized enterprises, from ESA Member States, Cooperating States and Associate States networked via an online platform in thousands of prescheduled meetings over both days.

- The Industry Space Days (ISD), organized by ESA's SME Office (Small & Medium-sized Enterprises), normally take place at ESA’s Technical Centre in Noordwijk in the Netherlands. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, ESA moved it online for the first time since its inception in 1999.

- “Holding this event online has not deterred the enthusiasm and drive of our space-based community,” commented Eric Morel de Westgaver, ESA Director of Industry, Procurement and Legal Services.

- “Establishing business partnerships and working together to strengthen Europe’s space economy through common goals, is at the core of this event.”

- ESA’s Director General, Jan Wörner opened ISD 2020 followed by presentations on business opportunities on ESA’s wide variety of space programs and activities. Industry leaders and associations also contributed in round-table discussions and presentations. Listeners could send in questions, which were answered by presenters.

- The second day included additional ESA presentations and a one-hour workshop on additive and advanced manufacturing given by ESA’s directorate of Technology and Engineering.

- Participants in the EIB Advisory Space Finance Lab discussed how the COVID-19 crisis has affected the space industry and what could be done to improve the conditions for European space companies.

- ESA hopes to host its next Industry Space Days on site at its European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands on 8–9 September 2021.

• 11 September 2020: This year’s ESA Open Day at ESTEC in the Netherlands is taking place on an online basis. Continuing COVID-19 restrictions make it impossible to let people on site in person, but participants will still enjoy virtual tours of the extensive establishment, get unique close-up views of space hardware and interact directly with astronauts and space experts. 56)

- This will be the ninth annual ESA Open Day at ESTEC, taking place on Sunday 4 October, and will be open to participants from across Europe and the world.

- The Open Day has become an annual highlight, and we regret not being able to welcome people into ESTEC this year,” comments Franco Ongaro, head of ESTEC and ESA’s Director of Technology, Engineering and Quality.

- “Instead we will use technology to make people feel like they are right with us on site. We have adapted to the situation as best we can, and our work has resumed its usual pace, so we have lots of exciting activities to share with the wider public.”

- Participants will sign in to a virtual auditorium, then be free to choose which ‘rooms’ they attend. Many of the most popular highlights of previous years will be on offer, including space careers talks from ESA Human Resources, details of ESA Education’s work with school and university students and Space Rocks and Space Story Tellers giving new perspectives on space and society.

- The Netherlands Space Office will present the work done by Dutch companies and researchers in the space sector. Participants can also go on a virtual backstage tour of the ESTEC Test Centre, which is specially equipped to check space missions are ready to fly into orbit. Guest astronauts will give talks and field questions – full details of the guest list will come later this month.

- The ESA Open Day at ESTEC 2020 will have the theme of ‘ESA and the Environment’. Space professionals knows the importance of sustainability: the finite resources of a space mission must be managed carefully to keep it running. The same is true down here on spaceship Earth.

- The virtual Open Day will focus on the many ways space is safeguarding the environment, through satellite-based Earth observation for environmental monitoring, as well as recycling technologies developed for astronauts in space habitats then applied to daily life.

- The efforts made to operate ESTEC and other ESA establishments in an environmentally friendly manner will also be highlighted – because we all live on the same blue planet.

- There will be an official registration for the online element of the Open Day, with a single ticket per household. More details will follow soon.


Figure 59: Photo of ESA’s ESTEC technical centre (image credit: ESA, SJM Photography)

- On the left of the image can be seen ESTEC’s Test Centre for full-scale testing of satellites, equipped with a suite of simulation facilities to reproduce every aspect of the space environment.

- In the centre is the main building, home to ESA laboratories and mission teams, distinguished by an almost 200-m long main corridor. To the right of the main building is the restaurant and tower complex built by renowned Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck in the late 1980s.

- On the other side of the car park is the two-tone square-shaped Erasmus building, focused on human spaceflight, and to its right is the T building, home to ESA’s Galileo team.

- This photo was taken during a weekend flight by ESA biomedical engineer Arnaud Runge.

- Come see ESTEC for yourself during the annual ESA Open Day on Sunday, 7 October 2020.

• September 2020: The view from the top of ESTEC, ESA’s European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. 57)

- ESTEC is ESA’s largest establishment, the technical heart of the Agency. The site is devoted to program management, technology development and satellite testing. This year’s ninth ESA Open Day at ESTEC is taking place on Sunday 4 October on an online basis. To participate you need to register.


Figure 60: This picture east from ESTEC’s laboratory block towards the main entrance, with the flags of the ESA’s Member States seen flying to the right of center. To the left is the T-building, home of ESA’s Navigation Directorate. The set of rooftop antennas belong to ESTEC’s Telecom Laboratory (image credit: ESA, G. Porter)

• 01 September 2020: Estonia has a long tradition of space research, characterized by the Tartu Observatory, which was once one of the largest telescopes in the world and today is Estonia’s main research centre for astronomy and atmospheric physics. 58)


Figure 61: Estonia celebrates its fifth anniversary in ESA after becoming ESA’s 21st Member State on 1 September 2015 (image credit: ESA)

Since 2010, Estonia has been strongly involved in more than 50 ESA-related projects and has developed capabilities in the downstream sector, particularly in the area of Earth observation and PNT applications. In 2013, Estonia joined the group of spacefaring nations with the launch of its first indigenous small satellite, ESTCube-1, with the purpose of testing an electric solar-wind sail.

As the first Baltic state, Estonia’s cooperation with ESA started with the signature of a Cooperation Agreement on 20 June 2007 in Tallinn and was strengthened through the European Cooperating State Agreement signed on 10 November 2009.

Estonia took a further step in its relations with ESA by signing the Accession Agreement to the ESA Convention on 4 February 2015. The signing ceremony took place at the ESA Headquarters in Paris with the participation of, among others, then ESA Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain, Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications responsible for Foreign Trade and Entrepreneurship Anne Sulling, Member of Parliament and Head of Estonian Space Committee Ene Ergma and the Estonian Ambassador in France Sven Jürgenson.

Following the signing, the process of ratification by the Estonian government began and was concluded on 1 September 2015, when Estonia deposited its instrument of ratification of the ESA Convention in Paris, to become officially ESA’s 21st Member State.

Ever since, Estonia has successfully proved to be an active, present and reliable part of ESA and the European space community.

• 23 June 2020: This is ESA — an illustrated guide to what ESA is and what we do. It shows a range of our activities and missions at the cutting edge of space design and technology, from making space safer to monitoring climate change and exploring our Solar System. 59) 60)

Available in eleven languages: English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Portuguese, Romanian, Swedish, Czech, Polish.

The brochure comes with an attractive space poster —both of the newest brochures (Czech and Polish) can be downloaded here.


Figure 62: This is ESA's behind the scenes poster — a visual component of the brochure, which takes you on a journey through ESA’s activities, showcasing how ESA is making space work for the benefit of humankind. The poster encapsulates these achievements in one dynamic image. But integrating our diverse space activities, including past, present and future missions, into one cohesive color poster was a challenge. In this interview, the poster’s designer explains how he achieved this and where he found his inspiration (image credit: ESA, Attilio Brancaccio)

The poster represents some of ESA’s most influential space missions spanning the past 30 years, as well as some of the ambitious science and discovery programs planned for the next decade. The brief was given to designer Attilio Brancaccio, who also designed ESA’s Columbus anniversary posters and our collection of Space Safety and Security images.

He explains that the initial approach to designing the poster was very much a collaborative process with the ESA team: “Initially we experimented with greater separation of the different areas representing the past, present and future missions, in terms of composition and layout. However, the main challenge was to create fluidity between the storylines and to get it to work in a balanced way.”

The next approach was to create a visual timeline: “Of course, it’s not an exact timeline because there are areas where the past and present merge together. For example, the International Space Station (ISS) is shown near to Orion, which is an upcoming mission and above we have Rosetta, which is a mission that ended in 2016.”


Figure 63: To create a cohesive image, diagonal lines were used to separate the different types of missions, while maintaining a fluid and dynamic feel. “If you look at the poster, you see there are five different bands – but you see it as just one design,” says Attilio. He adds that he then focused on balancing the different elements to find the best way to visually represent ESA’s story and heritage (image credit: ESA, Attilio Brancaccio)

The concept

On the left-hand side of the poster, three figures represent an astronaut, a scientist and an engineer, who gaze out across space. The female astronaut, who wears a patch containing the flags of ESA’s 22 member states, looks upwards towards the ringed planet Saturn, where the Cassini-Huygens mission is orbiting. The light from her EVA spacesuit shines on the spacewalker in the next section of the poster, who is attached to the ISS, flying 400 km above the green and blue shapes of planet Earth.

Just above the ISS, the Orion spacecraft can be seen on a future journey to the Moon. Rosetta and the icy grey comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko are seen in the upper central area of the poster. And in the next panel, we see the Ariane and Vega family of launchers, together with Space Rider, zoom up towards the top-right corner.

To the right of the rockets, a scene shows a futuristic Moon village, complete with the artist’s impression of a moon lander. This was inspired by the Prospect mission, a partnership between ESA and Roscosmos. In the same scene, BepiColombo can be seen on its journey to Mercury.

In the lower right corner, Rosalind the ExoMars Rover explores an imagined Martian city on the Red Planet, while the Mars Sample Return mission can be seen in the background heading back to Earth on board the Mars Ascent Vehicle.

Design inspiration

So what was the designer’s technique and inspiration for creating this image? After researching images of the ESA missions and with input from the ESA editor and designers, Attilio then sketched different ideas and compositions. One of the challenges was to depict the past missions in a realistic way, while some artistic licence was needed to imagine the future programs. For example, the images of the Rosetta spacecraft and BepiColombo had to reflect the actual missions, while the Moon village and the futuristic Martian city required some creative thinking.

The final image is the result of experimentation with layout and color, both on paper and using digital design tools. The designer explains: “This process enabled me to find a balanced placement for the different images. Once we had agreed on the style of the illustration and the composition, then I started to create the final design with professional illustration software.”

One of the key factors in creating a poster that really encapsulates the spirit of ESA was to find the perfect match between theme and style. Posters from the golden age of space and Moon discovery were a strong influence. Attilio was then able to add a 21st century feel using a fresh, modern color palette. He says: “I found myself inspired by the style of the 1960s and 70s era of US and Russian space missions. During those years there were amazing designs about space using the visual element to create the dream of future space exploration.” More than half a century later, ESA is more focused than ever on making this dream a reality.


Figure 64: The designer's hand-drawn sketches show the creative development behind the poster (credit: Attilio Brancaccio)

• 30 May 2020: After celebrating the 50th anniversary of the European space cooperation in 2014, we now mark 45 years since the signing of the Convention for the creation of a single European Space Agency on 30 May 1975. 61)

- The idea of building an independent space capability in Europe dated back to the early 1960s when six European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) formed the European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO) to develop a heavy launcher, later called ‘Europa’.

- Those same countries, plus Denmark, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland, established the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO) soon after, to undertake mainly scientific satellite programs. Signed in 1962, their Conventions entered into force in 1964.

- In 1975, a convention was drafted at diplomatic and ministerial level to set up one ‘European space agency’, and broadening the scope of the agency’s remit to include operational space applications systems, such as telecommunications satellites.

- ESRO and ELDO operations ended, the activities of the former being continued under the name of ESA and taken as the core of the new organisation, while the latter, which had already terminated its programs, was dissolved.

- On 15 April 1975, at the last European Space Conference in Brussels, European ministers adopted the final version of the ESA Convention. This document was opened for signature until 31 December 1975.

- It was signed by the representatives of ESRO and ELDO at the European Space Conference in Paris on 30 May 1975, and Ireland signed in December the same year. The ESA Convention entered into force on 30 October 1980, with the deposit of the last instrument of ratification by France.


Figure 65: Signing of the ESA Convention on 30 May 1975 at the Conference of Plenipotentiaries in Paris, Mr Michel d’Ornano, French minister, signing the ESA Convention. From left, Danish ambassador Mr Paul Fischer, Spanish ambassador, Mr Miguel Maria de Lojendio e Irure, Mr d’Ornano, and Irish ambassador, Hugh McCann. Behind, Secretary of the European Space Conference, Mr Michel Bourély (image credit: ESA)

Minimize ESA Corporate News continued

- Since then, the original members have been joined by Austria and Norway (1986), Finland (1995), Portugal (2000), Greece and Luxembourg (2005), the Czech Republic (2008), Romania (2011) and Poland (2012). The latest to join are Estonia and Hungary, which signed accession agreements in February 2015, to become the 21st and 22nd ESA Member States, respectively.

- Seven other EU states are European Cooperating States or have Cooperation Agreements with ESA: Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta and Slovakia. Slovenia is now an Associate Member. Canada also participates in some programs under long-standing Cooperation Agreements, the first of which was signed in 1979.

- Many successes have been achieved in all areas of space activities since the creation of ESA, all successes of European space industry, laboratories and research centers.

- Over the past 45 years, for example, Europe has marked a series of firsts in the exploration of our Universe: from an encounter with Comet Halley in 1986 (Giotto), parachuting a probe on to Saturn’s moon Titan in 2005 (Huygens) and landing on a comet in 2014 (Rosetta/Philae), to studying our Sun in unprecedented detail (SOHO) and producing the most detailed map ever created of the Cosmic Microwave Background – the relic radiation from the Big Bang (Planck), to name a few.

- ESA has also developed a range of launchers (Ariane and Vega), using a European launch site in French Guiana (Europe’s Spaceport, CSG). To have access to space is the first enabling element in the utilization of space and the many benefits this brings.

- ESA has developed one of the most complex Earth observation satellites (Envisat), is managing the space component of Copernicus, the most ambitious Earth observation operational program to date, and has made many more breakthroughs and innovations in technology, navigation (Galileo) and satellite communications.

- European astronauts have been taking part in human spaceflight missions for over three decades, and ESA is a fully-fledged partner in developing and operating the International Space Station (having provided the Columbus lab module and five ATV supply vehicles, among other elements, for example). Today, ESA is developing the European Service Module for NASA’s Orion spacecraft, and is ensuring that Europe plays a key role in the future international exploration of space, including missions to the Moon and beyond.

- Over time, stakeholder interests and partnership expectations change. Geopolitical and space-related environments become increasingly interwoven. In the 1970s, ESRO and ELDO were transformed into ESA in response to different needs of the space arena of those days. ESA has carried forward this readiness and ability to respond to change by applying its ‘normative’ framework to new situations and in new ways.

- This framework has not lost its ability to adapt, putting us in the best position to serve the space community: enhancing the benefits delivered by space systems to more Member States and their citizens. ESA’s Convention was visionary enough to allow such evolution.


Figure 66: An ESA astronaut patch with 22 Member State flags floats in the Cupola during Thomas Pesquet's Proxima mission on the International Space Station in 2017 (image credit: ESA/NASA)

• 27 May 2020: With most European states in lockdown because of COVID-19, ESA has continued to operate its space missions. Scientific, exploration, Earth observation, climate and technology testbed satellites are continuing to produce data and provide vital services. 62)

- Since early March, the majority of the workforce at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) mission control in Darmstadt, Germany, have been working from home. But despite the constraints this involves, mission controllers have overseen complex maneuvers and procedures. These have included testing a laser space communications system, space debris avoidance maneuvers, a dramatic Earth flyby and even recovering a spacecraft after it experienced a major power failure.

Figure 67: This video includes Skype interviews with mission controllers in their home offices, ESA’s Director of Earth Observation Programs and smartphone footage shot in the empty corridors of ESOC (video credit: ESA)

• 19 May 2020: With the Covid-19 pandemic halting our daily lives and forcing many countries and region into lockdown, the economic effects have been devastating. Closed borders have caused traffic jams and disrupted supply chains. 63)

Figure 68: In Europe, for example, the agriculture industry has suffered. Normally the industry relies on migrant labor to harvest crops, but as the lockdown continues, crops remain unpicked – putting farmers and the food supply under pressure. How can the food supply chain more sustainable? This video includes an interview with Josef Aschbacher, ESA’s Director of Earth Observation Programs (video credit: ESA)

• 28 April 2020: The Dutch royal family has formally honored the head of ESA’s largest site for his work forging links between ESA and the Netherlands, and helping make space a strong economic cluster within the nation. 64)


Figure 69: ESA Director of Technology, Engineering and Quality Franco Ongaro also serves as Head of Establishment of ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology Centre, in Noordwijk, the Netherlands (image credit: ESA, G. Porter)

- ESA’s Director of Technology, Engineering and Quality Franco Ongaro, the Head of Establishment of ESA’s European Space Research and Technology Centre, ESTEC, based in Noordwijk, has been appointed an Officer in the Order of Orange-Nassau by King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.

- This chivalric honor is awarded to individuals who make a special contribution to the country.

- On hearing the news, Director Ongaro said: “You can imagine my total surprise when the Mayor of Noordwijk Wendy Verkleij gave me the news about the Order of Orange-Nassau! I am delighted, happy and extremely proud because I see this as a reward for all in ESTEC and what we bring to the Netherlands.”

- ESA’s Director General Jan Wörner added his congratulations: “The order is open for people who have earned special merits for society. I congratulate Franco for this really high award from the Netherlands, paying tribute to Franco’s engagement for ESA’s establishment ESTEC, ESA’s largest site, which accommodates many programs and facilities.

- “Franco has been able to master several issues and develop the site to be much more than just a place for work, it is a place for interaction of ESA people internally but with the local community and the country at large. ESTEC is regularly hosting big conferences and attracts visitors from various countries.”

- ESTEC is ESA’s single largest site with around 2,700 employees, and the technical heart of the Agency. It hosts the teams managing most ESA space projects, and operates a full-scale test center for spacecraft, along with a suite of laboratories specialized in all aspects of space engineering.

- The site also supports the wider European space sector, working closely with universities, research institutes and companies, as well as national space agencies and partner organizations worldwide.

- During his tenure as Head of ESTEC, Director Ongaro has instituted annual Open Days to invite local people and the wider European public to see the innovative work performed there, with more than 8,000 visitors each year.

- He has also worked closely with local, regional and national authorities on the planned establishment of the Space Campus Noordwijk adjacent to ESTEC, and the addition of a new international meeting center on the site. Director Ongaro also serves on the Advisory Council of the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Delft University of Technology.

- Due to current COVID-19 restrictions, Director Ongaro will be presented with the Royal Declaration in person at a later date.


Figure 70: ESA research fellow Alexandre Meurisse and Beth Lomax of the University of Glasgow producing oxygen and metal out of simulated moondust inside ESA's Materials and Electrical Components Laboratory (image credit: ESA, A. Conigili)

• 28 April 2020: As the coronavirus pandemic wreaks vast changes on people’s daily lives, ESA is examining how space can help improve life on Earth both during and after the outbreak. 65)

- Experts in economics, geopolitics, psychology, medicine, data science and digital services will contribute to a series of online seminars organized by the agency and led by its Director General, Jan Wörner.

- The interactive sessions aim to leverage collective intelligence and expertise to build a better world.

- Life has changed profoundly since the arrival of the coronavirus. Many shops and restaurants have closed as people stay at home, and millions of people have lost their jobs. Schools have struggled to rapidly shift teaching online.

- Demand for delivery services is booming, but public transport has plummeted. Environmental pollution has fallen significantly, as industry and transport emissions reduce.

- Donatella Ponziani, Downstream Gateway Officer at ESA, said: “ESA is leading actions to leverage space to support the management of the crisis and contribute to the resilience needed in possible post-crisis scenarios. The world may experience an acceleration in technological developments such as digitalization, Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of Things, and the prioritization of axes of research such as healthcare and biotechnology.

- “Access to health, ubiquitous communication and remote access to education are no longer problems just for isolated areas; new business models and solutions are also needed for big cities.

- “Last but not least, the impact of the measures taken to contain the spread of the pandemic gives an outstanding demonstration of how slowing down society can have a tangible impact on the environment, as reported by the Earth observation data.”

Figure 71: NO2 concentrations over Europe. These images, using data from the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite, show the average nitrogen dioxide concentrations from 13 March to 13 April 2020, compared to the March-April averaged concentrations from 2019. The percentage decrease is derived over selected cities in Europe and has an uncertainty of around 15% owing to weather differences between 2019 and 2020 (image credit: ESA, the image contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019-20), processed by KNMI/ESA)

- Five one-hour webinars have been scheduled so far, each featuring a range of invited guests. “Climate care: remote life, better life?” will take place on 4 May at 17:00 CEST. It will be followed by “Healthcare” at the same time on 20 May, “Post-millennials education and social life” at the same time on 3 June, “Working efficiently, working remotely” at 15:30 CEST on 9 June and “COVID-19: Reinvent your business model” at 17:00 CEST on 15 June.

• 16 April 2020: A start-up company that has repurposed upcycled solar cells to generate ultraviolet light to disinfect people’s hands has won €20 000 in a hackathon designed to share and rapidly develop ideas to combat the coronavirus pandemic. 66)

- More than 12,000 people from over 100 countries took part in the Global Hack, organized by Estonian-based Garage48 and sponsored by ESA’s business incubation center in Estonia. Entrants were kept motivated by a recorded message from ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti. - The winners were announced on 12 April.

- A start-up company that has repurposed upcycled solar cells to generate ultraviolet light to disinfect people’s hands has won €20,000 in a hackathon designed to share and rapidly develop ideas to combat the coronavirus pandemic.


Figure 72: The disinfection station uses light at wavelengths demonstrated to kill germs but to be safe for skin and eye contact. It was presented by SunCrafter, a German start-up business that uses modules decommissioned by industrial solar farms to provide power to remote communities (image credit: SunCrafter)

- Lisa Wendzich, founder and chief executive, said that the company – which is based on the Siemens innovation campus in Berlin – was now working with partners to identify how to manufacture significant numbers of the units in the coming weeks and months.

- “This technology could be used in field hospitals, refugee camps and urban slums in countries with poor energy supplies, as well as in public spaces in the global north,” she said.

- The hackathon tackled 12 topics, including education, the economy, mental health and the environment.

- Joana Kamenova, an outreach and business analyst at ESA, was one of 180 people to volunteer as a response mentor during the hackathon and she helped to evaluate some of the proposals.

- “There were very progressive ideas about tackling the current crisis. How do we support small businesses coming out of the current lockdown? How do we learn from this crisis and tackle climate change? To contemplate how the emerging solutions can be scaled up by using space data and technology is very exciting. Some of the ideas are truly epic,” she says.


Figure 73: Photo of the solar-powered hand sanitation unit (image credit: SunCrafter)

- “We have partnered with this truly global movement to put Estonia’s exceptional digital infrastructure to best use to make the ideas come alive,” says Andrus Kurvits, manager of the ESA business incubator center in Tartu, Estonia.

- “We will connect with teams that developed novel space-related ideas to help them get the financial support they need to bring their solution to market.”

- ESA’s business incubation centers provide funding and support to help entrepreneurs to bring their ideas to market.

24 March 2020: In response to the escalating coronavirus pandemic, ESA has decided to further reduce on-site personnel at its mission control center in Darmstadt, Germany. 67)

- The new adjustments require temporarily stopping instrument operation and data gathering on four Solar System science missions, which are part of the wider fleet of 21 spacecraft currently flown by the Agency from ESOC (European Space Operations Center) in Darmstadt.

- ESA implemented risk mitigation measures early on. The vast majority of ESA’s workforce has been teleworking for nearly two weeks. Only key personnel performing critical tasks, which include maintaining real-time spacecraft operations, are still present on site at ESA’s establishments throughout Europe.

Supporting enhanced national measures

- Recent developments, including strengthened restrictions by national, regional and local authorities across Europe and the first positive test result for COVID-19 within the workforce at ESOC, have led the Agency to restrict on-site personnel at its mission control center even further.

- “Our priority is the health of our workforce, and we will therefore reduce activity on some of our scientific missions, especially on interplanetary spacecraft, which currently require the highest number of personnel on site,” says ESA’s Director of Operations Rolf Densing.

- “These have stable orbits and long mission durations, so turning off their science instruments and placing them into a largely unattended safe configuration for a certain period will have a negligible impact on their overall mission performance.”

- Among the affected missions are:

a) Cluster – A four-spacecraft mission launched in 2000, orbiting Earth to investigate our planet’s magnetic environment and how it is forged by the solar wind, the stream of charged particles constantly released by the Sun;

b) ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter – Launched in 2016, the spacecraft is in orbit around Mars, where it has been investigating the planet’s atmosphere and providing data relay for landers on the surface;

c) Mars Express – Launched in 2003, the workhorse orbiter has been imaging the Martian surface and sampling the planet’s atmosphere for over one and a half decades;

d) Solar Orbiter – ESA’s newest science mission, launched in February 2020 and currently en route to its science operations orbit around the Sun.

- “It was a difficult decision, but the right one to take. Our greatest responsibility is the safety of people, and I know all of us in the science community understand why this is necessary,” says Günther Hasinger, ESA’s Director of Science.

- “This is a prudent step to ensure that Europe’s world-class science missions are safe, along with the instruments from European scientists and our international partners flying on our missions. We are talking about some of humankind’s most advanced scientific experiments – and if switching some missions into temporary standby keeps them safe, then this is what we will do.”

- The temporary reduction in personnel on site will also allow the ESOC teams to concentrate on maintaining spacecraft safety for all other missions involved, in particular the Mercury explorer BepiColombo, which is on its way to the innermost planet in the Solar System and will require some on-site support around its scheduled Earth flyby on 10 April.

- The challenging maneuver, which will use Earth’s gravity to adjust BepiColombo’s trajectory as it cruises towards Mercury, will be performed by a very small number of engineers and in full respect of social distancing and other health and hygiene measures required by the current situation.

- The temporary reduction in personnel on site will also allow the ESOC teams to concentrate on maintaining spacecraft safety for all other missions involved, in particular the Mercury explorer BepiColombo, which is on its way to the innermost planet in the Solar System and will require some on-site support around its scheduled Earth flyby on 10 April.

- The challenging maneuver, which will use Earth’s gravity to adjust BepiColombo’s trajectory as it cruises towards Mercury, will be performed by a very small number of engineers and in full respect of social distancing and other health and hygiene measures required by the current situation.


Figure 74: Artist's rendition of BepiColombo's upcoming Earth flyby (image credit: ESA)

- Commissioning and first check-out operations of scientific instruments on the recently launched Solar Orbiter, which had begun last month, have been temporarily suspended.

- ESA expects to resume these operations in the near future, in line with the development of the coronavirus situation. Meanwhile, Solar Orbiter will continue its journey towards the Sun, with the first Venus flyby to take place in December.

Coasting through space

- “Over the coming days, our interplanetary missions will be gradually commanded into a safe configuration, so that thereafter they will need little or no intervention from ground,” says Paolo Ferri, responsible for mission operations at ESA.

- “These probes are designed to safely sustain long periods with limited or no interaction with ground, required for instance for the periods they spend behind the Sun as seen from Earth, when no radio contact is possible for weeks,” he adds. “We are confident that with very limited and infrequent interactions with ground control the missions can safely remain in that operation mode for months, should the duration of the coronavirus mitigation measures require it.”

- In the coming days, ESA will monitor the evolving environmental conditions and restrictions, develop special procedures, plans and decision logic for the future restart of the scientific operations.

- “The decision on when to return to normal science production mode will be taken independently for each mission, depending on several variables, including the type and complexity of each mission,” adds Paolo Ferri.


Figure 75: Artist's impression of Mars Express. The background is based on an actual image of Mars taken by the spacecraft's high resolution stereo camera (Artist's impression of Mars Express. The background is based on an actual image of Mars taken by the spacecraft's high resolution stereo camera)

- The measure does not affect other ESA missions that are operated from Darmstadt, such as space science missions for astronomy or Earth observation missions, including those that are part of the European Commission’s Copernicus program. For these missions, which require frequent care from ground, teams are able to conduct most control actions remotely, with just a single technician in a control room.

People first

- Even before this measure, the community of European and international scientists behind the interplanetary missions were already feeling the effects of the coronavirus outbreak, with processing and analysis hindered by local and national work restrictions and the need for social distancing.

- “I wish to thank all the scientists, engineers and other colleagues not only at mission control but across the Agency and at our partners who are keeping Europe’s essential space missions flying in the middle of this global crisis”, says ESA Director General Jan Wörner.

- “I am glad to see how professional everyone at ESA is throughout this difficult situation. It shows that the Agency is, first and foremost, an ensemble of humans from all over Europe who care. Humans who care not only about science and space, but even more about the well-being of colleagues, families and fellow citizens all over the planet.”

• 18 March 2020: ESA's Mission Control adjusts to coronavirus conditions. 68)


Figure 76: Responsible for spacecraft orbiting Earth, the Sun and exploring the Solar System, teams at ESA’s mission control deal with in-flight challenges every day, from faulty hardware, problematic software and hazardous space debris to computer viruses that could affect ground stations (image credit: ESA/ESOC)

So how do they keep missions flying when a viral pandemic puts the people of the Agency at risk? The first priority is the health and well-being of the workforce across the Agency, while those working at ESA’s mission control center, in Darmstadt, Germany, have the unique challenge of maintaining missions in orbit while ensuring critical ground infrastructure functions as it should, including seven ground stations located on three continents.

Plans on the ground

ESA is currently flying 21 spacecraft from ESOC, ranging from Earth observation to astronomy and planetary exploration missions, as well as five Sentinel satellites belonging to the European Union’s Copernicus program.

Figure 77: This animation shows different types of space debris objects and different debris sizes in orbit around Earth. For debris objects bigger than 10 cm the data come from the US Space Surveillance Catalog. The information about debris objects smaller than 10 cm is based on a statistical model by ESA (video credit: ESA) .

Number of space debris objects in orbit:

- > 1m: 5,400 objects

- > 10 cm: 34,000 objects (among them are only 2,000 active satellites)

- > 1cm: 900,000 objects

- > 1mm: 130,000,000 objects

Color code of Figure 77

- Red: satellites (functional or dysfunctional)

- Yellow: rocket bodies

- Green: mission related objects (covers, caps, adapters, etc.)

- Blue: fragments.

These missions do not fly by themselves. Engineers must take regular measures to, for example, protect spacecraft from gradually drifting off their intended orbits or colliding with debris, ensure solar panels are getting enough light from the Sun, operate the scientific instruments, receive bundles of crucial data and keep both onboard and ground systems working and up-to-date.

To deal with the Covid-19 outbreak, ESA is implementing numerous preventative measures taking account of guidance provided by national and regional civil authorities, especially with respect to minimizing personal contact.

For the mission operations teams or the experts in technical ground segment areas like flight dynamics and ground stations, work is typically done together in small-ish control rooms, and so a range of plans are in place to respond to the developing severity of the Covid-19 outbreak.

Responses differ primarily in the amount and type of personnel required on site in the control rooms and technical facilities.


Figure 78: Inside the Sentinel control room at ESA's operation center in Darmstadt, Germany (image credit: ESA, J. Mai)

Taking mission control home

For now, the aim at mission control remains maintaining the generation of mission data, and keeping the entire fleet of spacecraft, young and old, operating in a routine way.

At the same time the preparation and execution of ad-hoc critical activities, like collision avoidance maneuvers or the upcoming Earth flyby of BepiColombo, have to be ensured.

As of Monday, 16 March, the majority of the workforce at ESOC began working from home. Similar to staffing levels on a typical weekend, mission teams are now keeping a minimum presence on site, while everyone who can is performing the maximum possible daily activities off site.

In the history of ESA’s mission control center, there has never been a period with so few people on site,” says Rolf Densing, Director of Operations for ESA.

This of course has big implications for how missions are flown, and for the next few weeks, the priority will remain on protecting health by minimizing the number of people physically present, while ensuring effective daily operations".

In the future, if necessary, ESA could reduce on-site personnel even more, necessitating a reduction or even a halt to science data gathering so as to focus on simply maintaining spacecraft in safe, stable orbits.

“Such a scenario could be maintained for quite some time, extending into many weeks or months, if necessary,” says Paolo Ferri, Head of Mission Operations.

17 March 2020: With significant developments in the coronavirus situation and recent directives in our host nations, ESA has taken steps ensure the operation of its critical tasks while carefully reinforcing its duty of care and social responsibility. 69)

Last week, many ESA staff and contractors were advised to stay at home and take up teleworking, but the weekend saw border restrictions, closure of schools, shops and centers of social activity in France, Spain and the Netherlands, and even more stringent measures in other host nations. Preempting these events, ESA decided to apply this condition to the majority of ESA personnel across all establishments.

Several weeks ago, ESA’s management team began the process to confirm the list of critical tasks that ESA needs to protect, and identify the key resources that are required to support them, should the response to the coronavirus pandemic call for more stringent measures designed to reduce social interaction.

ESA Director General Jan Wörner said, “The health and welfare of our employees, their families and their communities remain my top priority. ESA has a duty of care to them all. But at the same time, we must also protect the core tasks of the Agency. My business priority has to be to ensure that these critical tasks continue uninterrupted.”

Only key workers required to support the formally identified critical tasks will be active at ESA sites, with all others now teleworking wherever possible both to reduce unnecessary social interaction and to allow maximum focus on critical tasks.

The ESA Council scheduled for 17/18 March was cancelled, but ESA management is working to identify the best process to allow executive committee approval of actions if necessary. Business continuity in the financial and procurement areas is being maintained.

The European Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, is also adopting significant restrictions on operations and access. In compliance with measures decided by the French government, launch campaigns under way at the center have been suspended. These launch preparations will resume as soon as health conditions allow. See the Arianespace press release.

13 March 2020: Europe and the world battle the surging SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. 70)

It is difficult to remember any disease or situation that has transformed the world as rapidly as the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which is causing COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-19) across all European countries and wreaking havoc across daily life. Across all of ESA’s member states, cases are increasing, in some cases rapidly. WHO has said that Europe is now the center of the global pandemic.

It most cases, it is anaesthesiologists that are on the front line caring for patients. Anaesthesiologists are the prime specialists in treating severely ill patients needing haemodynamic and ventilator support. All over Europe, anaesthesiologists are involved in the care of the critically ill COVID-19 patients and are working day and night to combat the severe consequences of the disease and improve the status of the critically ill patients.

ESA’s President Professor Kai Zacharowski is Director of the Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany, and has himself treated a number of patients with COVID-19. “On a European level more than 70% of intensive care patients are treated by anaesthesiologists. This reflects our responsibility being equipped with the best possible training and competencies to treat and, whenever possible, to heal and improve the outcome of our patients 24 hours a day.”

He adds: “Our members are to face a very intense working period over the months to come. We at ESA will aim to keep all our members as up to date as possible with key developments as the pandemic develops.”

Despite suffering over 80,000 cases, China has used all of its state powers to gradually take control of the pandemic within its borders, reducing the number of new daily infections and deaths to relatively low levels after the explosion of new infections in Hubei province which began with a trickle of cases in December 2019.

However, now ESA member states — including some of Europe’s largest countries — are suffering one of the most serious public health crises of modern times. Since Monday 9 March, Italy has been in a nationwide lockdown, with all 60 million of its citizens asked to stay home for all but essential journeys for food, drug supplies and to care for relatives. As of Friday, March 13, there have been 15,113 confirmed cases of COVID-19, causing 1,016 deaths. The Italian Prime Minister, Giuseppe Conte, has asked all Italians to stay home for all but exceptional circumstances, and all public gatherings are banned.

One of the most acute problems experienced by Italy is one that is now being faced by France and Spain and will likely soon be faced by other ESA member states and countries worldwide — a shortage of intensive care beds. Even in Lombardy, in Italy’s wealthier northern region, hospitals and especially their intensive care departments are being overwhelmed by a huge increase in cases, many requiring life-saving respiratory interventions. Intensivists, critical care specialists and anaesthetists are among the teams battling to save these patients. Very difficult choices are being made regarding which patients will receive treatment and those who will not. These new COVID-19 cases, of course, come on top of the usual requirements for critical care from other sources such as road accidents and emergency surgery.

“According to the data provided by our Italian colleagues the mean age of all COVID-19 patients is 70 years, and one of the major risk factors for ICU admission is obesity,” explains ESA Immediate Past President Stefan De Hert, based at Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. “Interestingly, patients less than 50 years old without major comorbidities seem to constitute 20% of the COVID-19 ICU patients. Finally, infected women seem to develop less symptoms than men, and also children seem to experience the infection without important clinical problems. These data are quite similar to what we have learned from the experiences of our Chinese colleagues.”

The situation in Spain is also rapidly worsening, with reports that Madrid’s public health system is creaking under the strain and several well-known politicians have been diagnosed with COVID-19. On Friday, March 13, Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez declared a state of alert, giving the government emergency powers to take control of factories and restrict people’s movements. The entire Spanish parliament is going through testing as a result of these alerts, and there are concerns that the entire region of Madrid may need to go into quarantine. As of this date, Spain has 4,200 confirmed cases of COVID-19, and 120 recorded deaths, around half in the Madrid region. The country has banned medical conferences, asking all doctors to remain available for work, and the country’s La Liga football league has been suspended after the entire Real Madrid Team was potentially exposed.

In Germany, Europe’s most populous country, many regions have closed schools and universities, and a raft of measures have been proposed, including bus passengers in Berlin being asked to enter through the back door, to protect the health of the drivers who must continue working. By Friday March 13, the country had recorded 3,059 cases and 6 deaths.

The German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, said in a press conference on March 11 that up to two-thirds of the country could eventually be infected. On Thursday, March 12 it was announced, also in Berlin, that “With the aim that the hospitals in Germany concentrate on the expected increasing need for intensive care and ventilation capacity for the treatment of patients with severe respiratory diseases by COVID-19, as far as medically justifiable, basically all planned admissions, surgeries and interventions in all hospitals be postponed and suspended indefinitely from Monday, March 15.”

The French President, Emmanuel Macron, was one of the first Western leaders to publicly accept the inevitability of the COVID-19 pandemic. And France has experienced one of the highest number of cases: 2876 cases and 61 deaths as of Thursday, March 12. Doctors in Paris have reported intensive care units filling up rapidly, with a risk that the country will follow the same trajectory as Italy but with an 8-day delay, having to choose who among coronavirus patients and others requiring critical care can receive treatment. It has already banned any public meetings of 1,000 people or more, reducing this from the previously announced number of 5,000.

Countries in Europe are not all adopting the same measures to fight the pandemic. Despite having one of the smallest number of cases, Ireland decided that from Friday 13 March, all schools and universities would be closed. Irish Prime Minister Leo Varadkar all banned all indoor gatherings of more than 100 people, and all outdoor gatherings of more than 500 people.

Within the UK, which has 798 cases and 11 deaths so far, Prime Minister Boris Johnson has not yet adopted some of the more severe tactics to confront the epidemic. On Thursday, March 12, he asked all people with the symptoms of a high temperature or continuous cough to self-isolate for seven days, but has so far ruled out closing schools and cancelling major events, although the English and Scottish football leagues decided on Friday, March 13, to postpone all fixtures for at least two weeks. The advice from medical experts in the UK is attempting to push the peak of the pandemic into the summer months and also flatten its intensity, to ensure as many people who need critical care in the coming months are able to receive it, and thus reduce the mortality rate.

Both Slovenia and Austria have closed their borders with Italy in order to stop the flow of cases, and Czechia has banned all non-citizens and non-permanent residents to manage its own increase in cases, as has Slovakia. Israel has effectively suspended its tourism economy by asking all incoming nationals of other countries to self-isolate for 14 days.

And late on March 11, US President Donald Trump announced a ban on travel to the USA from residents of 26 European countries, a move that was rapidly condemned as without evidence by the European Union. The announcement came as cases in the USA passed 1,000, with the actual toll thought to be far higher due to problems accessing testing kits nationwide and a fear that community transmission had been occurring long before the USA reacted properly to the pandemic. At the time of writing of this article, President Trump was expected to declare a state of emergency to tackle COVID-19.

At a personal level, people are being asked to wash their hands, for 20 seconds at a time with soap and water, as often as they can, or use a hand sanitizer. Avoiding touching your face with your hands at any time has also been proposed by public health experts, as has maintaining a minimum distance of 2 meters from any other person to reduce transmission.

“The European Society of Anaesthesiology, like all medical societies, has reviewed its own activities as this pandemic has developed,” explains Prof Zacharowski. “We have postponed all of our courses and the European Diploma in Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (EDAIC) exams. We have also changed the meetings of our board of directors from face-to-face to teleconferences. Most importantly, we have decided to postpone our annual Euroanaesthesia congress to a later date. We realize how vital anaesthetists and intensivists are during this time, and that being present in their hospitals far outweigh any other normal activities. Our members and community are crucial in containing this epidemic and saving countless lives.”

Two dates are currently under consideration for the new date for Euroanaesthesia: either 21-24 August or 28-31 August. The ESA team will inform all members as soon as a decision has been taken.

• 30 December 2019: As the year comes to a close, it is once again time to look back and reflect on some of the achievements and highlights of European spaceflight. The new Gaia star catalogue and the launch of Cheops are keeping ESA at the forefront of space science, as will Solar Orbiter, being prepared for launch next year. The Copernicus program continues to be the largest Earth observation program in the world, with ESA preparing even more missions. On the Space Station, Luca Parmitano became the third European to command an ISS expedition. During his second mission, he made some of the space program's most complex and demanding spacewalks. At the end of 2019, the ESA Space19+ ministerial conference agreed to give ESA its largest budget ever and expressed continued support for Europe’s independent access to space with Ariane 6 and Vega-C. 71)

Figure 79: ESA highlights of 2019 (video credit: ESA)

• On 6 December 2019, representatives from ESA, the European Parliament, the European Commission and the Italian Space Agency met at the States General for Space, Security and Defence event in Naples, Italy, to discuss upcoming challenges for European industry. 72)

The meeting follows the very successful Council at Ministerial Level, Space19+, which took place two weeks ago in Spain and where Member States fully endorsed ESA’s activities – with a total funding of €14.4 billion – the largest part of which is to be invested in ESA’s Earth Observation Programs.

The meeting was organized by ESA, the European Parliament and the Italian Space Agency, and Copernicus and Galileo were the subject of several talks by prominent speakers such as David Sassoli, President of the European Parliament.

With space-related activities recognized as having a strategic and relevant impact on industry, innovation, employment, new services for citizens and businesses, and environmental and civil protection, the European Union will also continue to invest in the space sector.

Europe’s Multiannual Financial Framework foresees a budget of €16 billion for the EU space program. However, the financial allocation will be negotiated by EU Member States and the European Parliament during 2020.

The funds will allow for a wide participation of industry, research centers and universities, which will serve to promote competitiveness, efficiency and innovation – supporting the collaboration between European industries.

Space will also benefit from funds for innovation and research foreseen in the Horizon Europe program, for which the European Commission has proposed a budget of €100 billion for the period 2021—27. The European Parliament, however, proposes to increase this to €120 billion.

Copernicus was highlighted as a European success story. The increased budget of Earth Observation Programs at ESA’s Space19+ will allow for the initial development, for example, of six new high-priority Copernicus missions, one of which will track global carbon dioxide emissions.

Josef Aschbacher, Director of ESA’s Earth Observation Programs, attended the Space, Security and Defence event, and presented ESA’s contributions to the European space program. He commented, “Copernicus is the world’s largest Earth observation system led by the European Union, while the Copernicus space component is managed by ESA. Today, the central Sentinel data hub provides 250 TB of data per day. Copernicus is a good example of how Europe can work together at its best. Copernicus is a European success story.”


Figure 80: Earth observation at Space, Security and Defence event in Naples, Italy (image credit: ESA)

• 28 November 2019: ESA’s Council at Ministerial Level, Space19+, has concluded in Seville, Spain, with the endorsement of the most ambitious plan to date for the future of ESA and the whole European space sector. The meeting brought together ministers with responsibility for space activities in Europe, along with Canada and observers from the EU. 73) 74) 75)


Figure 81: Ministers from ESA’s Member States, along with Associate Member Slovenia and Cooperating State Canada, gathered in Seville, Spain, 27-28 November 2019, to discuss future space activities for Europe and the budget of Europe’s space agency for the next three years (image credit: ESA, S. Corvaja)

The Member States were asked to approve a comprehensive set of programs to secure Europe’s independent access to and use of space in the 2020s, boost Europe’s growing space economy, and make breakthrough discoveries about Earth, our Solar System and the Universe beyond, all the while making the responsible choice to strengthen the efforts we are making to secure and protect our planet.

For the first time in 25 years, there will be a significant boost in funding for ESA’s world-class and inspirational science program, pushing the boundaries of our understanding of who we are and where we come from. It will allow the first gravitational wave detector in space, LISA, to fly alongside the black hole mission Athena and enable fundamental advances in our understanding of the basic physics of the Universe. There is also a strong reinforcement and accordingly funding for research and development and ESA’s laboratories, to underpin the missions of the future.

Figure 82: Artist's impression of the merger of two supermassive black holes during a galaxy collision. What happens when two supermassive black holes collide? Combining the observing power of two future ESA missions, Athena and LISA, would allow us to study these cosmic clashes and their mysterious aftermath for the first time. (image credit: ESA)

With worldwide partners, Europe will take its place at the heart of space exploration going farther than we have ever gone before – we continue our commitment to the International Space Station until 2030 as well as contributing vital transportation and habitation modules for the Gateway, the first space station to orbit the Moon. ESA's astronauts recruited in 2009 will continue to receive flight assignments until all of them have been to space for a second time, and we will also begin the process of recruiting a new class to continue European exploration in low Earth orbit and beyond. European astronauts will fly to the Moon for the first time. Member States have confirmed European support for a ground-breaking Mars Sample Return mission, in cooperation with NASA.

ESA will help develop the commercial benefits of space for innovators and governments across the Member States, boosting competitiveness in the NewSpace environment. We will develop the first fully flexible satellite systems to be integrated with 5G networks, as well as next-generation optical technology for a fibre-like ‘network in the sky’, marking a transformation in the satellite communication industry. Satellite communications will join forces with navigation to begin satnav for the Moon, while closer to home commercial companies can access funding for new applications of navigation technologies through the NAVISP program. ESA Ministers have secured a smooth transition to the next generation of launchers: Ariane 6 and Vega-C, and have given the green light to Space Rider, ESA’s new reusable spaceship.

Our Member States have committed to the responsible use of our environment both on and off our planet. ESA’s world-leading position in Earth observation will be strengthened with the arrival of 11 new missions, in particular addressing topics linked to climate change, Arctic and Africa.

There was also a significant development with the adoption of Space Safety as a new basic pillar of ESA’s activities. This will lead to new projects in the areas of keeping the space environment operational – through the removal of dangerous debris and plans for automation of space traffic control – and early warnings and mitigation of damage to Earth from hazards from space such as asteroids and solar flares. The Hera mission marks a joint collaboration with NASA to test asteroid deflection capabilities. New investments in the field of cyber-resilience and cyber-training have also been confirmed.

Figure 83: This taken from the new Hera mission trailer featuring rock star Brian May (image credit: ESA, Science Office)

The coming years will also see ESA reinforce its relationship with the European Union and increase its own organizational agility, effectiveness and efficiency.

“Bringing together our Member States, 22 governments that change regularly, and agreeing on such inspirational projects to share a joint future in space might seem an impossible task on paper. But in two days in Seville, we have proved it is possible,” said ESA Director General Jan Wörner. “It is possible because we work together to develop good programs, and it is possible because people are dedicated, and invest all their effort in a long and thorough decision process involving the scientific community, industry and national delegations.

“Together we have put in place a structure that sees inspiration, competitiveness and responsibility underpin our actions for the coming years, with ESA and Europe going beyond our previous achievements with challenging new missions and targets for growth along with the wider industry.”

Co-chairing the meeting, Manuel Heitor, Portuguese Minister of Science, Technology and Higher Education declared: “Today at Space19+ in Seville, together with my colleagues Ministers from ESA Member States, we secured a further step to foster Europe’s competitive position in the global space arena. We approved an ambitious portfolio of space programs, and addressed the challenges linked to the sector. We therefore invited all ESA Member States to seriously engage in taking stock of space activities in a continuous way and strengthen the role of ESA in Europe in close articulation with EC. In addition, we invited ESA Member States to work with ESA to take the necessary steps towards modernizing ESA's industrial policy and guarantee the agency evolves in a way to match a constantly changing environment, changing markets and a fast rate of digital transformation of our societies.”

Also co-chair of the meeting, French Minister of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, Frédérique Vidal said: “Space19+ has demonstrated the value of space as a critical infrastructure and enabler for our daily lives. Thanks to the European excellence in space, we are able to mutually tackle human and global challenges such as climate change, space safety and security. In subscribing to the programs, Member States have made a great step towards inspiring society and renewing our ambition to address those challenges. The high level of subscriptions that was decided at the Sevilla ministerial conference will permit to strengthen the European excellence in space and will also commit us towards European citizens.”


Figure 84: Official group photo Space19+. Ministers from ESA’s Member States, along with Associate Member Slovenia and Cooperating State Canada, gathered in Seville, Spain, 27-28 November 2019, to discuss future space activities for Europe and the budget of Europe’s space agency for the next three years (image credit: ESA, S. Corvaja)

About the European Space Agency

ESA is an intergovernmental organization, created in 1975, with the mission to shape the development of Europe’s space capability and ensure that investment in space delivers benefits to the citizens of Europe and the world.

ESA has 22 Member States: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, of which 20 are Member States of the EU.

ESA has established formal cooperation with seven other Member States of the EU. Canada takes part in some ESA programs under a Cooperation Agreement.

By coordinating the financial and intellectual resources of its members, ESA can undertake programs and activities far beyond the scope of any single European country. It is working in particular with the EU on implementing the Galileo and Copernicus programs.

ESA develops the launchers, spacecraft and ground facilities needed to keep Europe at the forefront of global space activities. Today, it develops and launches satellites for Earth observation, navigation, telecommunications and astronomy, sends probes to the far reaches of the Solar System and cooperates in the human exploration of space.

02 December 2019: In a world where change is the only constant, leadership is more important than ever. European ministers have strongly endorsed ESA to take this lead, increase its organizational agility, effectiveness and efficiency, and reinforce its relationship with the European Union.

“We have looked at the future of our activities solely from the point of view of benefits we can bring to society, industry, governments and all Europe’s people,” says ESA Director General Jan Wörner. “We tried to explain these benefits to European citizens, scientists, company leaders, the politicians and our international partners. With the support of our member States we created the Space19+ proposal, which was not only looking nice on big screens. European Ministers funded everything proposed with 14.4 billion Euro, the highest subscription in the history of ESA. This is a full success, a collective success!”.

Inspiration, competitiveness and responsibility

Modern societies heavily depend on services enabled by space technology. Without being aware we permanently use satellite-based navigation devices to find our way, rely on satellites to check the weather forecast, watch television brought to us by satellites and try to understand the consequences of climate change – collecting data via satellites.

European citizens expect ESA to make their lives better – reaping the benefits of space technology in day-to-day activities. This is a challenging responsibility. To fulfil it, ESA needs to excel in the global competition with inspiring space programs in all domains of space.


“At Space19+, ministers decided on a boost of space science in Europe for the first time after 25 years,” says Prof. Günther Hasinger, ESA Director of Science. “This enables Europe to embark on some of the biggest upcoming scientific opportunities. Observing supermassive black holes mergers, analyzing at the same time the light as well as the gravitational waves, will tell us how these gargantuan monsters alter time and space. This is absolutely essential to understand how our Universe works.”

The 10% increase for Science allows also for more small but fast-developed missions in close cooperation with ESA Member States like Cheops and Comet Interceptor.

“The holy grail in astronomy today is to find a second Earth,” says Prof. Hasinger. “Everybody is intrigued by the question whether there is life out there. I am very much looking forward to the launch of our first exoplanet mission Cheops, on 17 December this year. It is the first mission in a series of three dedicated to the search for life elsewhere than Earth.”

European astronauts enjoy a huge popularity in their home countries and beyond. Their missions to the International Space Station capture the imagination of citizens and inspire the younger generations in Europe.

“Humankind has been living and working permanently in space on the International Space Station for nearly two decades,” says David Parker, ESA Director of Human and Robotic Exploration.

“Now it is time to expand our presence to the Moon and one day Mars. The one-third growth in Europe’s space exploration program will make our dreams a reality. While we fully explore the Moon and its resources in preparation for going further, we will also bring pristine samples back from Mars to understand why the Red Planet is hostile to life today although long ago it was similar to our Earth.”

With the funding provided at Space19+, ESA will be able to issue a call for a new generation of European astronauts, send them to the International Space Station and also to the Moon aboard the Orion spacecraft. ESA will strengthen its partnership with NASA by contributing vital transportation, technology and habitation for the Gateway, the first lunar spaceport. As part of the most ambitious robotic exploration program ever attempted, ESA will build the first spacecraft to return pristine samples from the surface of Mars, transforming our knowledge of the Red Planet.


Autonomous access to space is of strategic political importance for Europe to realize its own ambitions. The entry into service of Europe's new family of launch vehicles, Ariane 6 and Vega-C and the investment in the future of space transportation will reinforce Europe's independent access to space, transport in and return from space for both commercial customers and critical government users.

“The demand for space transportation services is growing fast while competition is fiercer than ever,” says Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA Director of Space Transportation. “Europe is ready to play a strong role in all segments from heavy to small launchers and even in support to commercial micro launchers. Space Rider, ESA’s small shuttle for fast turnaround such as science experiments in microgravity, complements our portfolio. It’s time to embrace the private sector and we are ready for it. Space19+ demonstrates Europe’s determination to maintain its 40-year legacy of autonomous access to space.”

The cooperation between the EU and ESA in Galileo and EGNOS is a success with more than a Billion users for one of the most, if not the most accurate system in the world. It provides European companies and citizens with independent access to satellite positioning, navigation and timing services crucial to day-to-day life.

“Europe’s space ministers have given a clear vote of confidence to the Navigation and Innovation Support Program, by subscribing to its next phase with a significantly enhanced yearly budget,” says Paul Verhoef, ESA Director of Navigation.

“The program looks to the future of ‘positioning, navigation and timing’ by supporting commercial R&D projects, efforts to sharpen European competitiveness and long-term R&D including navigation beyond Earth. Its flexible, agile nature makes it a very suitable partner for ESA Member States and companies, including small-medium enterprises and the New Space ecosystem.”

Fast-paced digitalization and miniaturization have disrupted the telecommunication market forcing everyone to change.

“European ministers responsible for space have increased our budget by 35%,” says Magali Vaissière, ESA Director of Telecommunications and Integrated Applications, “Allowing us to implement all three strategic lines of our ARTES 4.0 program.”

“In partnership with the satellite communication industry, we will drive Europe’s competitiveness in the global market in particular by developing the first fully flexible satellite systems to be integrated with 5G networks, space systems for safety and security including SAGA as part of the European Quantum Communication Infrastructure as well as the next-generation optical technology for a fibre-like ‘network in the sky’.”

The past success of Europe in space depends fully on the competitiveness of its industry and of the cutting-edge basic R&D and world-class facilities of ESA. All domains of space technology, including innovative propulsion, digital design and new production methods, first flight of specialized microprocessors dedicated to artificial intelligence tasks and cyber-resilience both in terms of enabling technologies for a wide range of applications and resilience of space systems will benefit from the increase of funding at Space19+.

“Member States have recognized the key role of investment in basic technology research and the associated laboratories,” says Franco Ongaro, ESA Director of Technology, Engineering and Quality.

“Once the technology is mature the private sector is ready to use it. Europe’s ministers responsible for space understand that better than anybody else. They have substantially upgraded the funding for developing ideas, by increasing the basic activities by 10%, and by strongly supporting the generic support technology program; converting ideas into working prototypes and for readying leading-edge technology for spaceflight and open markets. I am very grateful for this strong endorsement of R&D programs at ESA. Now our challenge is to keep our technology target promise: to increase innovation sustainability and efficiency’ and to reduce the development time of our systems.”

"Substantial funds will be devoted to the mission operations infrastructure over the next three years," adds Rolf Densing, ESA Director of Operations.

"This infrastructure is essential for mission success. We will deliver advanced new capabilities as well as increased efficiency, notably a 'multi-mission operations infrastructure as a service', the deployment of new software to control satellites, dubbed 'European Ground Systems Common Core' and a new deep space antenna. Major investments have also been decided to make ESA a fully cyber-resilient agency. These efforts will all boost European industrial competitiveness on the global market."

“Now, we need to quickly transform this fantastic success into jobs and economic growth in all ESA Member States” said Eric Morel de Westgaver, ESA Director for Industry, Procurement and Legal Services. “Ministers have clearly recognized the industrial policy as a key challenge for the future of ESA. We will therefore work to further increase responsiveness and flexibility to adapt to all industrial actors, in particular SME who have a key role to play in this new space eco-system.”


Reflecting one of the major concerns of European citizens, European ministers responsible for space have made the greatest funding increase in Earth Observation. This will allow for a suite of eleven Earth Observation satellites to monitor climate change and the global carbon cycle to meet the Green Deal goal of a carbon-free Europe by 2050.

“Europe further enhances its role as global leader in Earth observation with clear targets to play an active role in supporting solutions to global issues related to Climate, Arctic and Africa,” says Josef Aschbacher, ESA Director of Earth Observation.

“The Copernicus space component program, co-funded with the EU, has received a record over-subscription of nearly one third, to develop six new Sentinel missions and the related ground segment. This is a clear endorsement for the continuation of a successful EU-ESA cooperation in space.”

“We will also initiate the Digital Twin Earth project combining high-performance computing, artificial intelligence and cloud-based processing to push the frontier of science and technology to better understand and model the Earth system with the most advanced technologies” adds Aschbacher.

The sky has so far not been falling on our heads – However, dinosaurs did not have a space agency, which explains why European Ministers established now firmly Space Safety as a new program.

“Compared to its precursor, Space Situational Awareness, Space Safety is more than four times bigger in volume” says Rolf Densing, ESA Director of Operations.

“We will be able to build three new missions: Lagrange, the first satellite to warn us of extreme space weather from an orbit simultaneously viewing both the Sun and Earth, Hera to demonstrate for the first time Asteroid deflection together with NASA and ADRIOS to demonstrate for the first time active debris removal.”

United space in Europe

Recognizing ESA's vital role in guaranteeing Europe's place in space, Ministers have expressed their full support to the Director giving him a clear mandate to reinforce both ESA's relationship with the European Union and to increase its own organizational agility, effectiveness and efficiency.

“Taken by the European ministers at Space19+ in Seville, these far-sighted decisions allow ESA to look with confidence and fresh commitment towards the opportunities of the next decade and beyond. I am proud to be the Director General of a stronger European Space Agency, leading a united space in Europe, cooperating where possible and competing where necessary, but uniting Europe in and through space” says Jan Wörner.

Table 1: Reflections on ESA’s Council Meeting at Ministerial Level, Space19+ 76)

• 27 November 2019: A Memorandum of Cooperation to further commit to strengthening cooperation in the field of space resources and innovation was signed by Luxembourg’s Deputy Prime Minister Etienne Schneider and ESA Director General ESA Jan Wörner. 77)


Figure 85: A Memorandum of Cooperation to further commit to strengthening cooperation in the field of space resources and innovation was signed on 27 November in Seville, Spain, by Luxembourg’s Deputy Prime Minister Etienne Schneider and ESA Director General ESA Jan Wörner (image credit: ESA, P. Sebirot)

- Following the establishment of the initiative in 2016 to promote and develop the research, economic and legal aspects of space resources, ESA and the Luxembourg Space Agency have been working together to explore opportunities for cooperation and have identified common objectives for research and development.

- The Luxembourg Space Agency is establishing ESRIC (European Space Resources Innovation Center), to create additional opportunities for European and international innovation. Its initial focus is on space resource extraction, processing and manufacturing to advance sustainable space exploration.

- The Memorandum signed at ESA’s Ministerial Council Space19+ in Seville, Spain, sees ESA join the Space Resources Innovation Center as a strategic partner, broadening the scope of the activities started under the initiative and giving it a more European character.

A common goal

- The cost of launching people and materials into space and the lack of an established, affordable means of resupplying essentials such as fuel and life support is currently a major barrier to sustainable space exploration.

- Overcoming these challenges, by developing technology that turns resources found in space into oxygen and water, fuel or building materials will open up new opportunities for Europe’s exploration of the Solar System, and provide new business opportunities, as well as benefits for communities on Earth.

- ESA is focused on in situ resource utilization to support sustainable exploration of our Solar System. As we look to take our next steps to the Moon and Mars, ESA sees in situ resource utilization as an enabling capability for sustaining human operations.

- The agency has already made significant progress in this area by developing the ESA Strategy for Space Resources that implements a number of ground-based research, technology and mission definition activities, using in situ resources for sustainable space exploration.

- Together with ESA, the Luxembourg Space Agency will set up the facilities that will allow ground-based research on space resources for both public and private researchers from all over Europe, establishing the key European center for space resources utilization.

- The scope of the cooperation will include research, business support and incubation, knowledge management and competence concentration and community management.

• 16 April 2019: The Contribution Agreement between ESA and the EU on space technology activities was signed today by ESA Director General Jan Wörner and the European Commission’s Deputy Director-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Pierre Delsaux. 78)

The objective of the EU’s In Orbit Demonstration/Validation (IOD/IOV) activities pursued through this agreement, in the frame of the EU’s Horizon 2020 program, is to set the grounds for a potential future provision of a regular IOD/IOV service for new technologies in Europe, based on European solutions for spacecraft, ground segment and launch services.

The choice of the European Commission to delegate ESA with the full implementation of the EU Horizon 2020 IOD/IOV actions acknowledges ESA’s leading expertise in managing such programs and mitigating risks, based on its long-standing experience in managing its own IOD/IOV programs.

Through the agreement, the EU also contributes to ESA’s Light Satellites, Low cost, Launch opportunities (LLL) initiative, specifically for the Proof of Concept demonstration flights for the Vega Small Spacecraft Mission Service (SSMS) and Ariane 6 Microsat Launch Share (MLS).


Figure 86: ESA and EU sign Contribution Agreement on Horizon 2020 space activities (image credit: ESA/European Commission)

• 14 December 2018: The ESA Council held its 277th meeting at the ESOC (European Space Operations Center) in Darmstadt on 12 and 13 December 2018. 79)

The Council welcomed NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine, who presented NASA’s vision for future space exploration. Mr Bridenstine praised the long-standing cooperation between ESA and NASA over the past 40 years through more than 260 major agreements including the iconic Hubble Space Telescope.

He strongly advocated international cooperation with ESA regarding space science, Earth science, the extension of the International Space Station operations and recognized the leading role of ESA on space safety and protection of space assets.


Figure 87: The ESA Council 2018 in Darmstadt, Germany, welcomed NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine as guest, here seen at right of ESA Director General Jan Wörner. Also to the right are, Jean Yves Le Gall, Chair of ESA Council, and Elena Grifoni-Winters, Council Secretary and Head of ESA Director General's Cabinet (image credit: ESA)

Looking at the future of exploration, Mr Bridenstine invited ESA to build from the International Space Station towards the Lunar Gateway as a sustainable and reusable outpost around the Moon. He congratulated ESA for delivering in November the first European Service Module as a critical element of the Orion missions and set the horizon for future missions to Mars, including the prospect of a joint cooperation with ESA on Mars Sample Return.

Discussions with the Member States were held in view of the conclusion of the industrial contract to be signed for the production of the first batch of Ariane 6 launchers to be launched after its maiden flight in 2020. ESA proposed a way forward to stabilize the transition until full operational capability of Ariane 6

After almost 40 years of outstanding collaboration with Canada, which will be celebrated next year, the ESA Council unanimously approved the renewal of the cooperation agreement between ESA and the Government of Canada for a period of 10 years.

Finally, the Council unanimously approved the proposal of the Director General concerning the renewal of its Director team of teams covering the four pillars of the agency, namely ‘Applications’, 'Safety and Security', ‘Science and Exploration’, ‘Enabling and Support’ as well as ‘Administration and Industrial Policy’.

• 17 August 2017: ESOC – the European Space Operations Center, in Darmstadt, Germany – has served as Europe’s ‘gateway to space’ for half a century. In 2017, ESOC is celebrating its 50th anniversary, highlighting a rich history of achievement in space. 80)

The articles stated provide a brief overview of ESOC's rich history, which encompasses 77 spacecraft, ranging from communication, weather, Earth observation and climate monitoring satellites to spacecraft studying the Sun or peering deep into our Universe. Exploring our solar system, ESOC has flown missions to the Moon, Mars and Venus, as well as three epoch-making triumphs: Giotto’s flyby of Halley’s Comet in 1986, the Huygens landing on Titan in 2005 and Rosetta’s delivery of Philae to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko in 2014 – humanity’s first-ever landing on a comet.

This special report takes a look at the center’s beginnings in 1967, the pioneering spirit of the early decades, the steady growth of mission operations expertise in Darmstadt, developments at the center and milestones in European space flight, ESOC’s evolving economic importance and the present challenges and future opportunities.


Figure 88: ESOC dresses up for its 50th anniversary. A new banner featuring the #ESOC50 logo has been installed on the fence, just outside the main gate. Since 1967 more than 70 satellites belonging to ESA and its partners have been successfully controlled from Darmstadt, Germany (image credit: ESA/D. Scuka, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO)

• 02 December 2016: ESA today concluded a two-day Council meeting at ministerial level in Lucerne, Switzerland. Ministers in charge for space matters from ESA’s 22 member states plus Slovenia and Canada allocated €10.3 billion for space activities and programs based on the vision of a United Space in Europe in the era of Space 4.0. 81)

The high level of subscriptions demonstrates once more that ESA’s Member States consider space as a strategic and attractive investment with a particularly high socio-economic value.

It also underlines that ESA is THE European Space Agency capable of channeling their investment to respond effectively to regional, national and European needs by covering all elements of space: science, human spaceflight, exploration, launchers, telecommunications, navigation, Earth observation, applications (combining space, airborne and terrestrial technology), operations and technologies; as well as responding to the needs and challenges of Europe and the Member States by bringing together all stakeholders.

Ministers confirmed the confidence that ESA can conceptualize, shape and organize the change in the European space sector and in ESA itself. While also acting as a global player, broker and mediator at the center of international cooperation in space activities, in areas ranging from the far away in exploration (with the concept of a Moon Village for instance) to supporting closer to home the international global climate research effort following the Paris Agreement of 2015.

At this summit, Ministers in charge of space matters have declared support for ESA’s Director General’s vision for Europe in space and the role and development of ESA: now the Space 4.0i era can start with ESA committing to inform, innovate, interact and inspire. And, building on commercialization, participation, digitalization, jobs and growth, the concept of “United Space in Europe” will soon become a reality.


Figure 89: ESA Council meeting at Ministerial Level, in Lucerne, on 1 December 2016. Ministers in charge of space activities from the 22 ESA Member States, plus Slovenia and Canada met to decide on future space activities for Europe (image credit: ESA, Stephane Corvaja)

• 18 June 2015: ESA’s business incubators hit a milestone this month: they have now fostered 300 start-up companies – and more are joining all the time. 82)


Figure 90: Portuguese Minister of Education and Science Nuno Crato and ESA Director of Technical and Quality Management Franco Ongaro at the fifth Portuguese Space Forum, where the ESA Business Incubation Center Portugal was opened, 5 November 2014 (image credit: TV Ciência) 83)

Thanks to innovations from the many Business Incubation Centers (BICs) start-ups, leading-edge applications that spring from space are spreading throughout Europe.

“Technologies from Europe’s space programs have turned out to be great problem-solvers here on Earth,” notes Franco Ongaro, ESA Director of Technical and Quality Management.

“They are now used in the most diverse applications, from healthcare to transport, from sport to entertainment, from managing Earth’s resources to helping the environment – and many more areas of our daily lives.

“These transfers of space technology result in new companies and jobs improving regional economies and helping to secure Europe’s global competitiveness.

“We have now boosted this spin-off effect by supporting more than 300 new companies, and each year we nurture another 100 via our Technology Transfer Program and incubation centers.”

These start-ups and their entrepreneurs offer smarter and better solutions to problems. For example, safety for lorry drivers at mines in Chile and Botswana has been improved by a Dutch start-up inspired by astronaut monitoring. The carbon emission and fuel consumption of heating systems have been cut by a UK company thanks to advanced coatings on satellite microthrusters.


Figure 91: The EstrellaSat driver fatigue system is now monitoring 30 drivers operating 10 trucks at a high-altitude mine in Peru. The same system is being installed in a mine in Botswana. EstrellaSat, now Wombatt, was supported during start-up by ESA’s Business Incubation Center in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The system incorporates spin-offs from several space technologies to lowerworkplace incidents caused by fatigue of haulage truck and other large machinery operators in open pit mines (image credit: Stracon GyM S.A.C.)

ESA incubators in eight countries

Many such new offerings are put to the market every year by entrepreneurs hosted by incubators in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the UK, France, Spain and Portugal.

“The ideas from our entrepreneurs and start-ups are in most cases directly based on spin-off from Europe’s space programs,” explains Mr Ongaro.

“It can be a special technology developed for a spacecraft, an ESA patent, our Galileo satnav system, Earth observation satellites data or it can be the reuse of expertise from our development of satellites and launchers that is turned into a novel non-space application. In all cases, it results in a new European company.”


Figure 92: Finding the best wind farm site is simple by using a new system from start-up company Leosphere, hosted at ESA’s Business Incubation Center in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The lidar technology the company has used is taken from ESA’s forthcoming Aeolus mission, which will do the same task except from space, to capture a 3D map of Earth’s wind fields (image credit: Leosphere) 84)

300 start-ups and many new jobs

The first application round of 2015 saw 21 new start-ups selected, taking the total beyond 300. Among these are good examples of the diversity of business ideas.

In Barcelona, Spain, the company North Europe 2012 will develop an underwater robot to collect detailed data on sea depth, water quality and sea floor details to create accurate 3D underwater maps. Accurate satnav data, autonomous navigation, radio systems and advanced sensors will be combined to develop a prototype.


Figure 93: An unmanned aircraft system guided by satnav has been developed at ESA’s Business Incubation Center in Darmstadt, Germany, to provide rapid monitoring of land areas and disaster zones. The planes have already helped Spanish farmers in Andalusia to fight land erosion (image credit: Mavinci) 85)

In Germany, the young Geodetic Cloud Computing Service company is hosted in Darmstadt to develop a web-based service offering satnav information at higher accuracy, faster and at lower cost than is currently available.

Rather than using conventional satnav data, they will work with the satnav’s phase signal combined with corrective information from ground stations to obtain higher accuracy.

At the Sud France incubator, TRAXxs entrepreneurs will combine satnav tracking and shoes. With miniaturized, low-power microelectronics and antennas embedded in shoes, realtime tracking will be available on smartphones, tablets and web portals.

The Active Aerogels group are hosted in Portugal to develop new uses for aerogels in aircraft manufacturing to improve thermal and acoustic insulation.


Figure 94: The stability of buildings and infrastructures like roads can now be monitored in real time by a new technique with its roots in space. The approach was developed by Italian start-up company Nhazca at ESA’s Business Incubation Center in Lazio near Rome, Italy, by combining satellite Earth observation data and ground-based radar imaging technology, which works in much the same way as satellites scan surfaces on Earth (image credit: NHAZCA) 86)

In Bavaria, Germany, the Vemcon start-up are looking to increase the productivity of bulldozers and other heavy-duty mobile machines by improving the operational tools available to drivers. These machines have become more complex, carrying different tools for a variety of tasks, and Vemcon proposes to use the latest man-machine methodologies to improve the driver’s handling of these large machines.

Incubator approach is expanding

“We expect more BICs, as ESA Member States see the advantage of supporting spin-off from their investment in Europe’s space programs to create successful new local companies and jobs under this initiative,” adds Mr Ongaro. “It is just a matter of taking advantage of all our space technologies, patents and expertise which are ripe and ready to use to create new businesses in Europe.”


Figure 95: ESA's Technology Transfer Program Office coordinates the eleven ESA Business Incubation Centers (BICs) in nine countries (image credit: ESA) 87)

Some ESA Test & Support Facilities

The Testing Support Facilities are part of the Engineering Services Section and cover the following main areas: 88)

• Electrical, optomechanical and dimensional metrology

• Electronic design and manufacturing, maintenance of electronic equipment

• Mechanical design, multiphysics numerical simulations and mechanical manufacturing.

This Section is ISO 9001 certified. It is organised as follows:

Metrology Laboratory

This Laboratory is tasked with performing mechanical, optomechanical and dimensional measurements for the ESTEC Test Center, ESA laboratories and ESA projects. It also participates in the development and maintenance of auxiliary test equipment and methods for the ESTEC Test Center.

The Laboratory, located in the class 100,000 of the Test Center, has the following capabilities:

• Optical alignment (theodolite, laser tracker)

• Mechanical positioning and alignment (two 3D coordinate measurement machines, laser tracker)

• Spacecraft alignment, payload assembly and alignment (Class 10 000 cleanliness is achievable)

• Interface checks and 3D dimensional measurement

• Laser interferometry (linear optics)

• Vacuum-compatible 3D measurement system (videogrammetry)

• Vacuum-compatible infrared camera system for thermography

• Reverse engineering (part to computer-aided-design modelling)

• Strain/stress/roughness measurements.

Support tasks in its field of competence have been carried out for numerous ESA projects including XMM and Cluster (focal length measurement); MetOp, PROBA-2, Galileo GIOVE-A, COROT, ATV, GOCE, LISA Pathfinder and Herschel-Planck.

Laboratory Equipment Pool

The main task of the Laboratory Equipment Pool (LEP) is to organise the calibration and repair of electronic equipment used on the ESTEC site. Associated tasks include maintaining in-house primary standards, performing inspections of incoming equipment and technical consultancy. The LEP manages a pool of electronic measurement and test equipment for temporary loan to other ESTEC laboratories or Test Center customers.

The LEP belongs to the engineering area of the ESTEC Test Center. It works closely with the engineers of the Electronic Design Office (EDO), facilitating mutual cooperation which is beneficial for electronic test set ups and measurement methods. Expertise on electronic calibration and temperature/humidity sensors is available.

The Laboratory has the following capabilities:

• Primary electrical standards which are traceable to national and international standards

• A Faraday cage which allows high-frequency measurements and ensure disturbance-free measurements

• Support for measurement set-up definition, loan of measurement equipment

• A network of accessible LEP database to retrieve data concerning in-house electronic equipment

• A facility for temperature/humidity sensor calibration

• Management of outside calibration control.

The LEP is ISO 17025 accredited for the following measurements: DC voltage, resistance, capacitance, temperature/humidity.


Figure 96: Camera mounted inside the ESTEC Test Center's LSS (Large Space Simulator), image credit: ESA

Electronic Design Office / Electrical Workshop

The Electronic Design Office (EDO) has the task of designing, manufacturing and assembling electronic hardware. It supports ESTEC testing facilities in the conception and realisation of new equipment or the modification and upgrading of existing equipment. It also provides advice to project groups to assess electronic or electromechanical design concepts by simulation or breadboarding – the creation of test models.

Located close to the ESTEC Test Center the EDO is in direct contact with the Electrical Workshop (EWS), qualified for electronic hardware prototyping and manufacturing as well as flight hardware assembly.

The EDO is equipped with numerous tools for electronic design, combined with specific expertise in many electronics fields. The EDO, with the EWS, have the following capabilities:

• Electrical design tools (for example Pspice, fully programmable gate array (FPGA) software, thermal analysis software for printed circuit board (PCB) design) including various measurement tools

• A large amount for special tools for cable harness manufacturing, PCB manufacturing and assembly and modification/repair of medium-sized electromechanical devices.

• A clean room for flight hardware assembly, integration and repair.

EDO and EWS are ISO 9001 certified as part of the Engineering Services Section.

Mechanical Design Office / Mechanical Workshop

The Mechanical Design Office (MDO) participates in the design and realisation of dedicated test equipment and mechanical ground support equipment (MGSE) for the ESTEC Test Center and its customers.

It cooperates closely with the other units to carry out investment and maintenance tasks to update or modify the test facilities. It is in direct contact with the Mechanical Workshop (MWS) which can handle a large variety of mechanical manufacturing tasks.

Located close to the ESTEC Test Center, the MWS provides a quick reaction time when ad-hoc support is urgently requested. It also backs up ESTEC laboratories in the field of parts and components manufacturing or rapid prototyping.

The MDO performs multi-physics simulations at the request of customers such as vibration test runs of shakers or structural simulations of ESTEC Test Centre hardware or MGSE. It maintains a Product Data Management system with a 3D model database of the ESTEC Test Center.

The MDO is in possession of state-of-the-art computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) equipment and simulation software tools for mechanical design and manufacturing. The MWS is equipped with traditional and numerically controlled machines.

The capabilities of the MDO and MWS include:

• CAD/CAM stations equipped with advanced software modules for design, simulation or manufacturing

• A Product Management System (SMARTeam) including a large repository of the ESTEC Test Center facilites.

• Multi-physics vibration facilities simulators

• Standard tooling and equipment

• High-precision 5-axis computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine

• High-precision CNC turning machine

• Sheet metal manufacturing including a CNC press break

• Vacuum compatible welding and soldering corner

• 3D rapid prototyping printer

• Multi-layer insulation (MLI) blanket room

As part of the Engineering Services Section both MDO and MWS are ISO 9001 accredited.

GRALS (GNC Rendezvous, Approach and Landing Simulator)

The robotic arm, attached to a 33 m track is ESA's GRALS (GNC Rendezvous, Approach and Landing Simulator). Part of the Agency's Orbital Robotics and Guidance, Navigation and Control Laboratory, GRALS is used to simulate close approach and capture of uncooperative orbital targets, such as drifting satellites or to rendezvous with asteroids. It can also be used to test ideas for descending to surfaces, such as a lunar or martian landing. 89) 90)

The moveable arm can be equipped with cameras to test vision-based software on a practical basis to close on a scale model of its target. Image-processing algorithms recognize various features on the surface of the model satellite seen here, and uses those features to calculate the satellite’s tumble, allowing the chaser to safely come closer. Alternatively, the robotic arm can be fitted with a gripper, to test out actually securing a target, or with altimeters or other range sensors.

The Orbital Robotics and GNC Lab is located at ESA’s ESTEC technical center in the Netherlands.


Figure 97: This robotic arm, attached to a 33 m track, is ESA's GRALS (GNC Rendezvous, Approach and Landing Simulator), image credit: ESA, M. Grulich

GRALS tests and status

• 01 October 2020: A camera closes in on a detailed model satellite, to simulate the extreme ‘guidance navigation and control’ (GNC) challenge of rendezvousing with an uncooperative target, such as a derelict satellite or distant asteroid. 91)


Figure 98: This scene takes place in ESA’s GRALS (GNC Rendezvous, Approach and Landing Simulator), based at the ESTEC technical centre in the Netherlands, which is used to test vision-based navigation algorithms as well as cameras in development for future space debris removal, as well as the Hera asteroid mission for planetary defence (image credit: ESA, M Schwendener, L Pasqualetto-Cassinis)

• 05 June 2020: GRALS was recently used to try out a new GNC testbed system for improved high-fidelity testing of navigation cameras, processors and other hardware, developed with ASTOS Solutions GmbH in Germany, supported through ESA’s General Support Technology Program. 92)


Figure 99: Photo of GRALS being used to simulate close approach to targets such as drifting satellites or asteroids (image credit: ESA, G. Porter)

ESA's Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC)

ESA’s Large Diameter Centrifuge gives scientists access to high gravity levels for minutes, days or even weeks on end.
Based at ESA’s ESTEC technical centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) is a centrifuge designed not for astronaut training but specifically for research. Jointly financed by ESA and the Dutch government, the LDC is available for a wide variety of applications. 93)

Figure 100: The 8 m diameter LDC can operate at up to 20 g, with four gondolas able to accommodate up to 80 kg of payloads, with central gondola as a control. Two additional gondolas can be optionally attached to on mid-arm to simultaneously provide different g-levels. Experiments can be spun for up to six months non-stop (video credit: ESA)

In order to understand and describe the influence of gravity in systems the observation of behaviour in microgravity and at 1 g (where g is the gravitational acceleration at the surface of the Earth) is not sufficient. A broad gravity spectrum has to be explored to complete the scientific picture of how gravity has an impact on a system: samples have to be exposed to a variety of acceleration values above 1 g (hypergravity). 94)


Figure 101: Pohoto of ESA's LDC (Large Diameter Centrifuge) facility at ESTEC (photo: ESA)

Status and events of LDC

• October 02, 2020: Last week, a team of university students from Portugal successfully completed its research under various hypergravity levels in ESA’s Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) located at ESTEC, Noordwijk. 95)


Figure 102: Team Artemis during Spin Your Thesis! campaign. Working in close proximity, the team had to wear face masks and shields at all times (image credit: ESA)

- The team has been developing its experiment since the selection last October 2019. During this period, they not only learned how to prepare for scientific research in another establishment, but all team members were also highly active in project and financial management, logistics, coordination and outreach. An additional challenge this year was the COVID-19 pandemic that affected all aspects of their project. This made the SYT! campaign extraordinary in terms of learning goals for students. As the leader of the team mentioned, “Being at the European Space Agency for the "Spin Your Thesis!" campaign was a truly unforgettable experience. The preparation for the campaign was not easy since everything has to be programmed in advance and taking into account the pandemic situation. It was hard work but was absolutely worth it!”

- Composed of four Portuguese PhD students specialized in nanomedicine and translational drug delivery from University of Porto i3S group, the Artemis team investigated the role of increased gravity stress on permeability of an intestinal cell line using specialized transwells which allows to culture and test permeability in a variety of ways, namely electrical resistance and ability for compounds to traverse the monolayer of cells.

- Systemic delivery of orally-administered biopharmaceuticals remains a real challenge due to rapid enzymatic degradation in the stomach and gut and minimal absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanoparticle formulations and encapsulation of drugs have been extensively studied as a strategy for the effective treatment of several diseases, since they are a strategy to overcome those biological obstacles and to improve the delivery of biopharmaceuticals through biological barriers.

- The team believe that by investigating the cellular model used to test the absorption of biopharmaceuticals under environmental stresses such as shear stress and increased hydrostatic pressure would yield accurate results on the permeability of intestinal epithelium.


Figure 103: The Artemis team with the ESA Academy and ESA TEC support staff during the Spin Your Thesis! campaign (image credit: ESA)

- There is plenty more work and analyses to be performed back in the university of Porto labs, and the team is enthusiastic about the experience, “We were able to contact with professionals specialized in the gravity field, which allowed us to acquire new knowledge and improve our practical skills. This was a unique experience, both personally and professionally that will never be forgotten. We would recommend anyone to go on this fantastic ride!”

- The employees working at the LDC and at ESA Academy enjoy working with the students. “Every year, Spin Your Thesis! brings new students who are so eager to perform top quality science on this centrifuge, said Nigel Savage, Program Coordinator for university student experiments. “Their boundless enthusiasm is contagious and we do everything to help them achieve their goals. We are confident that their first ‘professional’ encounter was positive for them and that they will pursue their career in gravity related research.”

- The first part of our SYT! 2020 campaign has been successfully completed but stay tuned for the second team’s experiment “TOFU”, which will investigate the degeneration of neurons via tau protein aggregation in hypergravity.

- If you are interested in participating in the SYT! campaign, please click here and see how you can propose and conduct your own experiment in altered gravity.

CATR (Compact Antenna Test Range)

CATR is located at ESA/ESTEC in the Netherlands. This anechoic chamber is used to test space antennas of 1 m across or less, or else entire small satellites. 96)

- With a diameter of 8 m, the LDC offers hypergravity environments from 1 to 20 g simulated by the centripetal forces due to rotation. Within the LCD, scientists can conduct studies involving cells, plants and small animals, as well as physical science and technology demonstrations. Data acquired in the LDC are particularly important since observations done in microgravity may not be sufficient enough. Therefore, a broader gravity spectrum with gravity levels rising above 1 g can usefully add to the general scientific data set. Another advantage of the LDC is that the different g levels can be controlled for an extended period of time (even up to 6 months, although students in the SYT (Spin Your Thesis)! campaign will only use it for 2,5 days) with a constant supply of power, gas or liquids.


Figure 104: CATR is screened against external electromagnetic radiation, while their inside walls is covered with pyramid-shaped non-reflective foam to absorb signals and prevent unwanted reflections, mimicking infinite space (image credit: ESA, G. Porter)

- In addition, a pair of wall-mounted parabolic cylindrical aluminium reflectors alter the shape of signals as they reflect them, as if they have travelled thousands of kilometers instead of a handful of meters.

- The CATR is supplemented by the larger Hybrid European RF and Antenna Test Zone (HERTZ) for larger antenna or satellite testing, as well as a lab for the testing of candidate antenna materials.

ESA's Hertz Chamber

Isolated from the outside world with radio- and sound-absorbing internal walls, the chamber simulates the boundless conditions of space. Its hybrid nature makes it unique: Hertz can assess radio signals from antennas either on a local ‘near-field’ basis or as if the signal has crossed thousands of kilometers of space, allowing it to serve all kinds of satellites and antenna systems. 97)


Figure 105: A view inside ESA’s cavernous Hertz chamber for radio-frequency testing of satellites. This photo was taken during a visit to ESA’s technical centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands by artist and photographer Monica Alcazar-Duarte: “Once the door of the chamber was opened I was presented with a landscape that could have come from a science fiction film. I know this is not the case of course but the room was incredibly inspiring.” (image credit: ESA, Monica Alcazar-Duarte)

ESA/ESTEC operates some of the largest European test facilities dedicated (but not limited) to testing of space hardware. Among them is the Antenna Laboratory. The Antenna Laboratory, through its several facilities and over 30 years of existence, provides state-of-the-art measurement services to ESA projects and external customers and explores and develops new measurement techniques. They comprise various labs located in ESTEC, ESA and an offsite facility, the DTU-ESA Spherical Near Field Antenna Test Facility, operated by the Technical University of Denmark, provides additional services. 98)

Between them, these facilities support testing across the entire spectrum of antenna development, from characterizing the properties of candidate materials for antennas, including measurement of their RF absorption, reflectivity and dielectric properties, to assessing the performance of antenna subsystems up to the qualification validation of full-scale complex radiating systems such as a fully-integrated satellite incorporating multiple antennas aboard.

Figure 106: Antenna Test Facilities and Electro-Magnetic Compatibility Laboratories (image credit: ESA)

The Antenna Laboratory provides support to both ESA projects and external customers – including small-medium-sized companies lacking access to comparable private-sector facilities – needing to assess new antenna designs and techniques and qualifying designs for flight. This has included some of ESA’s largest flight hardware.

Projects that received recent support include antenna measurements for forest monitoring mission Biomass, ongoing tests for the next generation of Galileo, as well as numerous CubeSat missions. The facility has also been greatly involved in the testing of mesh samples for large deployable reflectors.

Antenna Test Facilities

Antennas have evolved into an indispensable tool for radio-based space science, exploration and Earth observation, allowing in-depth characterization of many proprieties of distinct space bodies, such as galaxies, planets, stars, and comets, enabled through the use of imaging radar, scatterometry and radiometry. 99)

To serve this variety of applications, a broad portfolio of different antenna technologies are continuously being developed, from small navigation antennas overlooking the whole sky, to dish-shaped 'high-gain' antennas, which concentrate the radio signals they send or receive into a very small area to maximize signal strength. Typically operating across thousands of kilometers, if their pointing direction is off by even a tiny fraction of a degree then their radio beam may end up weakened, or hundreds of kilometers away from their intended target.

Modern antennas are often extremely complex: the current generation of telecommunication satellites transmit multiple small beams instead of a single main beam. Antenna dishes are carefully shaped to optimize signal strength across the region being served and enable frequency reuse for different channels while avoiding 'cross-talking'. Additionally, radio-based instruments for space science research, planetary exploration and Earth observation make use of a very large frequency spectrum, from a few megahertz up to (sub)-millimeter waves, operating well beyond 500 GHz.

The Antenna Testing Laboratories have the challenging task of testing these complex space antennas. By doing this they reduce the risks inherent in adopting state-of-the-art instruments within ESA programs and allow future missions to be selected with confidence. They are made up of four test facilities, the Compact Antenna Test Range (CATR), the Hybrid European RF and Antenna Test Zone (HERTZ) and the Microwave and (Sub) mm-wave Material RF Characterization Laboratories.

Both CATR and HERTZ are anechoic chambers, screened against external electromagnetic radiation and their inside walls are covered with pyramid-shaped non-reflective foam to absorb signals and prevent unwanted reflections. The CATR can handle antennas of up to 1m in diameter while HERTZ performs measurements on larger antennas or complete satellite payloads. The HERTZ laboratory is also located within a cleanroom area to allow testing of flight hardware.

The Microwave and (Sub) mm-wave Material RF Characterization Laboratories are quasi-optical set-ups based on high performance corrugated horns, grids and refocusing mirrors to allow the determination of complex material properties for antenna applications. The (Sub) mm-wave set-up is installed in a controlled cleanroom environment ensuring adequate conditions for flight hardware testing.

Expanding ESTEC’s Test Centre

• September 9, 2020: The ESTEC Test Centre is expanding. A new 350 m2 cleanroom is being added to the Netherlands-based site, already Europe’s largest facility for satellite testing. 100)

To begin with, 110 foundation piles have been inserted into the sandy soil, ranging in depth from 10 to 17 m. Now ground is being excavated to dig a connecting tunnel bringing power, data, heating and cooling infrastructure to the new cleanroom.

The ESTEC Test Centre is a 3000 m2 environmentally-controlled complex nestled in dunes along the Dutch coast, filled with test equipment to simulate all aspects of spaceflight. It is part of ESA’s main technical centre, but is maintained and operated on a commercial basis on the Agency’s behalf by private company European Test Services (ETS) B.V.

Most of the time the ESTEC Test Centre has several test items within its walls simultaneously. Complex planning and traffic management are necessary to ensure every project get access to the facility they need at the time they need it. So sufficient room is required needs to accommodate the different programs and allow their movement between test facilities.

“The new clean room will offer extra space to host satellites as they come on site,” explains Gaetan Piret, overseeing the Test Centre . “It will also host our sensitive micro-vibration measurement facilities, used to characterize the very low vibration generated by mechanisms mounted aboard satellites.”

“For this reason we rejected hammering in the piles,” explains Jan Trautmann of ESA Facilities Management, managing the construction project. “Instead ‘cast in place’ piles were used, involving drilling deep holes, then lowering a steel reinforcement and filling them with concrete. This method generates much less noise and vibration.”

Planned to take account of current COVID-19 restrictions, the aim is to complete the new building by next summer, which will then be linked via large corridor to the current building.


Figure 107: The building work, led by Dutch company Heijmans, is intended to have as little impact on the rest of the site as possible, allowing the rest of the Test Centre to continue nominal operations (image credit: ESA)

ESA LORENTZ (Low Temperature Near Field THz Chamber) Test Facility

• April 28, 2021: ESA’s newest radio-frequency test facility allows direct measurement of antenna systems in the very vacuum conditions and thermal extremes they will work in, including the chill of deep space. It will soon be put to work testing the Juice mission’s radiometer – destined to probe the thin atmospheres of Jupiter’s largest moons. 101)


Figure 108: The recently completed LORENTZ test facility at ESTEC can test high-frequency RF systems such as stand-alone antennas and complete radiometers at between 50 to 1250 GigaHerz in space-quality vacuum for several days on end, in temperature from just 90 degrees above absolute zero up to 120ºC (image credit: ESA, SJM Photography)

- “There is nothing else like this in the world,” says ESA antenna engineer Luis Rolo. “It enables a whole new capability in RF antenna testing.

- “The reason we need it is because key RF variables such as focal length and precision alignment are influenced by materials shrinking with cold or swelling with heat. Accordingly standard room-temperature testing is not representative in such conditions – to all intents and purpose they almost become like different instruments. This became obvious as long ago as the 2009 Planck mission, which operated at cryogenic temperatures to pick up microwave traces of the Big Bang.”

- ESA antenna engineer Paul Moseley adds: “But while the need for such a facility is clear, designing, building and finishing Lorentz has proved extremely challenging. This is because while one side of the chamber reaches very high or low temperatures, the other side must stay at room temperature. The scanner acquiring RF signal power and field patterns has to be kept at steady environmental conditions to ensure reliable, cross-comparable data.”

- Making Lorentz possible meant borrowing design techniques from cryogenic radio astronomy, along with in-depth advice from ESA thermal and mechanical experts:

- “This is such a multi-disciplinary project, with so many new elements to us, as antenna engineers,” adds Luis “Throughout the installation and commissioning phases we had a remarkable support from people that have been working with cryo-chambers and complex mechanical systems for many years, such as the ESA and European Test Services thermal vacuum teams and of course ESTEC’s Electro-Mechanical workshop. Their support was very valuable and greatly appreciated.”

- The facility is based around a 2.8-m diameter stainless steel vacuum chamber. Operating in vacuum meant the familiar spiky foam wall linings usually used to dampen reflected signals in RF test chambers had to be replaced due to the risk of ‘outgassing’ contaminants. Instead black carbon epoxy incorporating silicon carbide grains absorbs and scatter signals.

- Liquid nitrogen can be pumped into the inner lining of the vacuum chamber to chill it, or alternately gaseous nitrogen to push up the temperature, typically targeting a steady ‘plateau’ for test purposes.

- The test item itself can be rotated during testing as the scanner – its position controllable down to a few thousandths of a millimeter – records its signal from the other side of the chamber’s thermal barrier. Kept insulated by multi-layer insulation and an air gap, this thermal barrier is capable of moving to let the mobile scanner peep through, attaining a 70 x 70 cm field of view.

- Lorentz’s chamber arrived at ESTEC last September. Months of work followed to integrate, test and finalize the facility. Test campaigns have already been carried out, reaching expected performance.

- In May Lorentz will assess its first flight item: the Sub-millimeter Wave Imager radiometer of ESA’s Juice mission, which will survey the scanty atmospheres of Jupiter’s Galilean moons and their interaction with the Jovian atmosphere and magnetic field.

- Development of Lorentz was supported through ESA’s GSTP (General Support Technology Program), preparing promising concepts into usable products.

• April 21, 2021: ESA’s ESTEC technology centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, took delivery of this 2.8 m diameter vacuum chamber to host ESA’s latest world-first test facility.102)


Figure 109: Arrival of world-first test facility (image credit: ESA, Luis Rolo)

The Dutch Terahertz company in Groningen led the wide portfolio of mostly Dutch suppliers and companies that manufactured the 5–ton stainless steel chamber. It was delivered to ESTEC last September.

“Since then we’ve been working flat out to integrate our new Lorentz facility, trouble shoot and test it,” comments antenna engineer Paul Moseley. “The project took place on top of our usual test support work, observing all COVID-19 safety protocols, but we benefitted from the strong support of ESTEC’s multi-disciplinary laboratories and facilities.”

“Now it is finally ready to begin operations,” adds antenna engineer Luis Rolo. “The result is a unique test facility for Europe – there’s nothing else like it anywhere in the world.”

To see the finished Lorentz facility in place, and learn what it does, come back to check next week’s ESA Technology image of the week.

ESA's Bi-Axial Test Facility

• July 14, 2021: Going to space equals stress. As launcher propellant tanks are filled with fuel, or spacecraft structural panels experience the strain of orbital ascent, they undergo major force loading in multiple directions at once. 103)

- “This is a new add-on to our existing Instron hydraulic test system, which is able to apply up to 250 kilonewtons of force in a single direction,” explains ESA materials engineer Donato Girolamo, who commissioned the design of the new facility to fulfil space material testing requirements.

- “This extra jig works somewhat like a car jack. It has four rotating arms connected to sliding clamps onto the sides of the test item. Then as the hydraulic load is applied these arms rotate and the clamps slide outwards, pulling the material out along all four directions, to apply loading in both the x and y axes.”

- Such bi-axial testing is especially valuable for composite structures, widely used in space, which can possess differing material properties along different directions.

- The custom-made tooling for the new facility was designed and built by Enduteq in the Netherlands.

- The Bi-Axial Test Facility will begin by investigating the performance of solid rocket motor cases. It would also be suited to testing materials making up structural panels, as well as those for pressure chambers of all kinds, from propellant tanks to crewed modules.

- “This expansion of our capabilities allows us to reproduce the real load conditions facing our test materials and structures more closely than ever,” remarks Tommaso Ghidini, heading ESA’s Structures, Mechanisms and Materials Division.

- “This is one example of how we are continuously working to enhance our testing capabilities to better serve our customers, shrink uncertainty margins and improve the performance of European spacecraft and systems.”


Figure 110: ESA’s new Bi-Axial Test Facility – installed at the Agency’s Materials and Electrical Components Laboratory at its ESTEC technical centre in the Netherlands – replicates the bi-directional application of load, allowing higher-fidelity testing of candidate materials for space missions (image credit: ESA,D. Girolamo)

ESA Business Incubation Centers (BICs) — Start-up opportunity for entrepreneurs

ESA Technology Transfer and Business Incubation Office initiated its ESA Business Incubation Centers (ESA BICs) in 2003 to inspire and work with entrepreneurs to turn space-connected business ideas into commercial startup companies. 104)

This has proven to be a very successful initiative. Over 700 start-ups have been fostered throughout Europe with thousands of new high tech jobs created thanks to the applications of space systems, the valorization of ESA intellectual properties and the space technologies transfers - and more than 180 new start-ups are taken in yearly at the ESA BICs.

Twenty ESA BICs, spread over more than 60 cities, in 17 European countries have been set-up with more already in the planning. Together with their national partners and ESA the centers provide all the needed technical expertise and business-development support to the more than 300 start-ups currently under incubation.

Many examples are illustrated in the “Our Future in the Space Age” introducing ESA’s technology transfer programme and telling the stories of how some space technologies spin-offs have resulted in innovative applications and smart solutions for citizens on Earth.

Successful ESA BIC entrepreneurs

The ESA BICs provide an excellent opportunity for entrepreneurs and start-ups to turn their ideas and inventions into successful businesses in Europe. At the centers they are provided with:

- office space and logistics support

- technical support

- business assistance

- seed money and access to equity loan facilities

- access to inventors, VCs and other finance opportunities

- help to find partners and launch business internationally through the extensive ESA BIC network.

ESA offers business incubation at:

ESA BIC Noordwijk located in Noordwijk near ESTEC in the Netherlands.

• ESA BIC Hessen & Baden-Württemberg with three centers located in Darmstadt near ESOC, in Reutlingen close to Stuttgart, and at Friedrichshafen-Immenstadt in Germany.

• ESA BIC Lazio located in Rome near ESRIN in Italy.

• ESA BIC Bavaria with three centers located in Oberpfaffenhofen, Nürnberg and Ottobrunn, Germany.

• ESA BIC UK with three centers located at Harwell, in Edinburgh and in Daresbury in UK.

•ESA BIC Belgium with 6 centers located in Redu, Charleroi, Liège, Louvain-la-Neuve, Antwerpen and Ghent.

• ESA BIC Sud France with 11 centers located in the Aquitaine, Midi-Pyrénées, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Corsica, and Auvergne Rhone Alpes regions in the south of France, and in French Guyana.

• ESA BIC Barcelona in Spain.

• ESA BIC Portugal with three centers in Coimbra, in Porto and in Cascais near to Lisbon.

• ESA BIC Madrid Region with four centers in Pozuelo, in Tres Cantos, in Leganés and in Mostoles, all in the Madrid region in Spain.

• ESA BIC Sweden with three centers in Luleå, in Uppsala and in Trollhättan.

• ESA BIC Czech Republic with two centers in Prague and in Brno.

• ESA BIC Austria with two centers in Graz and in Wiener Neustadt.

• ESA BIC Ireland with four centers in Cork, in Athlon, in Maynooth and in Ringaskiddy.

• ESA BIC Switzerland with the center in Zürich and supporting start-ups throughout the country through virtual incubation.

• ESA BIC Estonia with two centers in Tartu and Talling.

• ESA BIC Finland with two centers in Espoo and Tarku.

• ESA BIC Nord France with six centers in Brest, in Nantes, in Paris, in Lille, in Troyes and in Caen.

• ESA BIC Hungary in Budapest.

• ESA BIC Norway with four centers in Kjeller, Oslo, Stavanger and Tromsø.


Figure 111: Overview of ESA BICs in Europe (image credit: ESA)


Figure 112: The network of ESA Business Incubation Centers (ESA BICs) consists of 20 centers in 16 European countries, providing in more than 60 cities the needed technical expertise and business-development support to the more than 300 start-ups currently under incubation. To date over 700 start-ups have been fostered throughout Europe with thousands of new high tech jobs created thanks to the applications of space systems, the valorization of ESA intellectual properties and the space technologies transfers - and more than 180 new start-ups are taken in yearly at the ESA BICs (image credit: ESA)

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22) ”Selection begins | ESA’s next astronauts,” ESA Science & Exploration, 10 September 2021, URL:

23) ”ESA and UN offer worldwide access to hypergravity testing,” ESA Enabling & Support,

24) ”Planet Aqua: Solutions from Space for Clean Water,” ESA Enabling & Support, 24 August 2021, URL:

25) ”Astronaut applicants asked for patience as numbers exceed forecasts,” ESA Agency, 23 August 2021, URL:

26) ”Be part of something big,” ESA Science & Exploration, 31March 2021, URL:

27) ”Duneside view of ESA's technical heart,” ESA Enabling & Support, 23 July 2021, URL:

28) ”Picture-frame-sized CubeSat antenna reaches orbit,” ESA Enabling & Support, 22 July 2021, URL:

29) ”ESA and EU celebrate a fresh start for space in Europe,” ESA-Agency, Press Release Nº 20–2021, 22 June 2021, URL:

30) Jeff Foust, ”EU and ESA proclaim “fresh start” in space cooperation,” SpaceNews, 22 June 2021, URL:

31) ”The new European Union Space Programme a successful European cooperation paradigm,” EUSPA, 22 June 2021, URL:

32) ”Metalysis–ESA Grand Challenge: team Malt wins first phase,” ESA-Agency, 21 May 2021, URL:

33) ”ESA's technical heart,” ESA Enabling & Support, 12 May 2021, URL:

34) ”ESA competition to springboard SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Enterprises) into international markets,” ESA Agency, 10 May 2021, URL:

35) ”Lithuania becomes ESA Associate Member state,” ESA-Agency, 30 April 2021:

36) ”Introducing ESA Agenda 2025,” ESA-Agency, 07 April 2021, URL:

37) ”ESA's technical heart,” ESA Enabling & Support, 18 March 2021, URL:

38) ”This is ESA,” ESA / About Us / ESA Publications, 15 March 2021, URL:

39) ”Behind the scenes: This is ESA poster,” ESA / About Us / ESA Publications, 15 March 2021, URL:

40) ”Visit ESA virtually with new #DiscoverESA platform,” ESA Corporate News, 05 March 2021, URL:

41) ”Space Care,” ESA Agency, 03 March 2021, URL:

42) ”Josef Aschbacher is new ESA Director General,” ESA Agency, 01 March 2021, URL:

43) ”Meet ESA’s R&D department,” ESA Engineering & Support,” 10 February 2021, URL:

44) ”Simulating space,” ESA Agency, 28 January 2021, URL:

45) ” ESA Preview 2021,” ESA Agency, 5 January 2021, URL:

46) Jeff Foust, ”Brexit deal allows UK to continue participation in Copernicus,” SpaceNews, 27 December 2020, URL:

47) ”ESA Council appoints Josef Aschbacher as next ESA Director General,” ESA Corporate News, 17 December 2020, URL:

48) ”ESA Highlights,” ESA / About Us / ESA Publications, 15 December 2020, URL:

49) ”Space opera,” ESA Enabling & Support, 18 November 2020, URL:

50) ”Contracts signed for three high-priority environmental missions,” ESA Applications, 13 November 20220, URL:

51) ”Marking five years of Hungary in ESA,” ESA Corporate News, 04 November 2020, URL:

52) ”Space to help build a green post-pandemic economy,” ESA Applications / Telecommunications & Integrated Applications, 27 October 2020, URL:

53) ”ESA Masterclass: Paolo Ferri on leadership, coaching, learning,” ESA Enabling & Support, 21 October 2020, URL:

54) ”Artistic enigma decoded by cosmic Czech start-up,” ESA Applications, 20 October 2020, URL:

55) ”ESA brings space industry together online,” ESA Agency, 18 September 2020, URL:

56) ”ESA Open Day going online this October,” ESA Agency, 11 September 2020, URL:

57) ”Summit of technical excellence,” ESA, Enabling & Support, September 2020, URL:

58) ”Marking five years of Estonia in ESA,” ESA Corporate News, 01 September 2020, URL:

59) ”This is ESA in Czech and Polish,” ESA Agency, 23 June 2020, URL:

60) ”Behind the scenes: This is ESA poster,” ESA Agency, 23 June 2020, URL: Behind the scenes: This is ESA poster

61) ”Forty-five years of the ESA Convention,” ESA / About Us / ESA history, 30 May 2020, URL:

62) ”Mission controllers maintain the service,” ESA Enabling & Support, 27 May 2020, URL:

63) ”A sustainable future,” ESA Applications, 19 May 2020, URL:

64) ”Dutch royal family honors head of ESTEC,” ESA / About Us / ESTEC, 28 April 2020, URL:

65) ”ESA in a post Covid-19 world,” ESA Applications, 28 April 2020, URL:

66) ”Solar-powered hand sanitiser wins ESA-backed hackathon,” ESA Applications, 16 April 2020, URL:

67) ”ESA scales down science mission operations amid pandemic,” ESA / Science & Exploration / Space Science, 24 March 2020, URL:

68) ”Mission Control adjusts to coronavirus conditions,” ESA / Enabling & Support / Operations, 18 March 2020, URL:

69) ”Coronavirus and ESA’s duty of care,” ESA / About Us / Corporate news, 17 March 2020, URL:

70) ”Europe and the world battle the surging SARS-CoV-2 pandemic,” ESA, 13 March 2020, URL:

71) ”ESA highlights 2019,” ESA, 30 December 2019, URL:

72) ”Earth observation at Space, Security and Defence event,” ESA / Applications / Observing the Earth, 11 December 2019, URL:

73) ”ESA ministers commit to biggest ever budget,” ESA Press Release No 22-2019, 28 November 2019, URL:

74) ”Agency Corporate News,” ESA, November 2019, URL:

75) ” European Space Technology Master Plan,” ESA, Space19+ edition, 2019, URL:

76) ”Record funding for European space investments in Seville,” ESA / Corporate News, 02 December 2019, URL:

77) ”ESA and Luxembourg Space Agency confirm partnership on space resources,” ESA, 27 November 2019, URL:

78) ”ESA and EU sign Contribution Agreement on Horizon 2020 space activities,” ESA corporate news, 16 April 2019, URL:

79) ”Update from ESA Council, December 2018,” ESA corporate news, 14 December 2018, URL:

80) ”Brief history of ESOC,” ESA / ESOC history / Highlights, 17 August 2017, URL:

81) ”European ministers ready ESA for a United Space in Europe in the era of Space 4.0,” ESA, Ministerial Council 2016, 02 December 2016, URL:

82) ”From ESA: more than 300 new companies,” ESA / Applications / Telecommunications & Integrated Applications / Technology Transfer, 18 June 2015, URL:

83) ”Opening ESA BIC Portugal - Nuno Crato and Franco Ongaro at the Space Exhibition,” ESA, 10 November 2014, URL:

84) ”Optimize wind energy,” ESA, 18 June 2015, URL:

85) ”Mavinci help fight land erosion by unmanned aircraft,” ESA, 18 June 2015, URL:

86) ”ESA BIC startup on landslides,” ESA, 3 December 2014, URL:

87) ”ESA Business Incubation Centers - December 2015,” ESA, 8 December 2014, URL:

88) ”Testing Support Facilities,” ESA Enabling & Support, URL:

89) ”GRALS Testbed,” ESA, 16 May 2018, URL:

90) Jesus Gil and Guillermo Ortega, ”ESA Developments on GNC Systems for Non-Cooperative Rendezvous,” ESA, 23-27 May 2016, Clean Space Industrial DaysESTEC, The Netherlands, URL:

91) ”Simulated satellite rendezvous,” ESA Enabling & Support, 01 October 2020, URL:

92) ”Arm out to asteroid,” ESA, 05 June 2020, URL:

93) ”Science In a Spin: ESA's Large Diameter Centrifuge,” ESA Science & Exploration, 30 September 2011, URL:

94) ”The Large Diameter Centrifuge,” ESA / Education / Spin Your Thesis, 30 October 2009, URL:

95) ”Drug delivery research in hyper gravity,” ESA / Education / Spin Your Thesis (SYT), 02 October 2020, URL:

96) ”Place for space testing,” ESA Enabling & Support, 15 July 2020, URL:

97) ”Inside Hertz Chamber,” ESA, 4 October 2017, URL:

98) ”Antenna Laboratory,” ESA Enabling & Support, URL:

99) ”Antenna Test Facilities,” ESA Enabling & Support, URL:

100) ”Expanding ESTEC’s Test Centre,” ESA Enabling & Support, 9 September 2020, URL:

101) ”Hot and cold space radio testing,” ESA Enabling & Support, 28 April 2021, URL:

102) ”Arrival of world-first test facility,” ESA Enabling & Support, 21 April 2021, URL:

103) ”Feel the force,” ESA Enabling & Support, 14 July 2021, URL:

104) ”ESA Business Incubation Centers,” ESA, URL:

The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: ”Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors” (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates (

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