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Satellite Missions Catalogue

EOS-01 (Earth Observation Satellite - 01)

Mar 3, 2021





Multi-purpose imagery (land)


Operational (nominal)


The Earth Observation Satellite-01 (EOS-01) is a satellite imaging mission for surface observations including agriculture, forestry, flood monitoring, and also military surveillance.

Quick facts


Mission typeEO
Mission statusOperational (nominal)
Launch date7 November 2020
Measurement domainLand
Measurement categoryMulti-purpose imagery (land)
Instrument typeImaging microwave radars
CEOS EO HandbookSee EOS-01 (Earth Observation Satellite - 01) summary

6U Kleos CubeSat in orbit
Artist's rendition of a 6U Kleos CubeSat in orbit (Image credit: Kleos)



Mission Capabilities

EOS-01’s primary instrument is an X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that is able to capture all-weather, day-and-night images. An X-band transmitter produces successive radio waves and the onboard receiver is a radial rib reflector 3.6 m mesh antenna. The data is used to support agencies working in agriculture, forestry and disaster management

As the satellite moves over a certain region, multiple signals are collected by the satellite, which when combined, form a higher spatially resolved image than would have otherwise been recorded using conventional stationary beam-scanning.

Perfomance Specifications

EOS-01 orbits at an altitude of 575 km and inclination of 37º. While this orbital trajectory does limit global coverage, it does result in regular 90 minute revisit time of Indian territory and also that of neighbouring Pakistan. Both RISAT-2B, RISAT-2BR1 also sit on this orbit, each equally spaced by a phasing of 120º.

Space and Hardware Components

The satellite BUS follows a similar structure to that of its RISAT-2 predecessor, but is slightly larger in size with a recorded mass of 628 kg. The Bus is hexagonal in structure, equipped with a separate payload module. The entire satellite draws 2 kW of power at maximum functionality.

EOS-01 (Earth Observation Satellite) former RISAT-2BR2

Launch    References

EOS-01 is an Earth observation satellite of ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization), an X-band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) spacecraft, intended for applications in agriculture, forestry and disaster management. It is a part of India's RISAT series of SAR imaging spacecraft and would be the third satellite in the series including RISAT-2B, RISAT-2BR1 with 120° phasing.

EOS-01 is an X-band SAR satellite with a mass of 628 kg and a design life of 5 years. It is part of ISRO's RISAT series of SAR satellites and was originally named RISAT-2BR2 but was changed to EOS-1 as per new naming criteria.

ISRO did not provide any description of the EOS-01 spacecraft and its payload.


On 7 November 2020 (09:11 UTC), ISRO launched the EOS-01 satellite on the PSLV-C49 vehicle along with nine international customer satellites from the First Launch Pad of Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota, India. 1)

Figure 1: Launch of PSLV-C49 from Satish Dhawan Space Center carrying EOS-1 on Nov. 7, 2020 (image credit: ISRO)
Figure 1: Launch of PSLV-C49 from Satish Dhawan Space Center carrying EOS-1 on Nov. 7, 2020 (image credit: ISRO)

After 15 minutes and 20 seconds, EOS-01 was successfully injected into its orbit. Subsequently, nine commercial satellites were injected into their intended orbits. After separation, the two solar arrays of EOS-01 were deployed automatically and the ISRO Telemetry Tracking and Command Network at Bengaluru assumed control of the satellite. In the coming days, the satellite will be brought to its final operational configuration.

Orbit: Circular orbit of 575 km altitude, an inclination of 37º. The 37-degree inclination orbit selected for the EOS-01 satellite does not provide global radar observation coverage, but it offers regular passes over Indian territory and neighbouring Pakistan, a longtime strategic rival to India in the region.


Co-passenger Payloads 

The nine customer satellites from Lithuania (1), Luxembourg (4) and the USA (4) were launched under a commercial arrangement with NewSpace India Limited (NSIL).

• The R2 CubeSat (M6P 2, LacunaSat 2), a technology demonstration from NanoAvionics of Lithuania. The M6P is a 6U CubeSat project being developed by the Lithuanian NanoAvionics as a pathfinder mission for their M6P CubeSat platform.

- During the mission NanoAvionics will be testing their 6U (called M6P – Multipurpose 6U Platform) platform based on a modular and highly integral design which extends payload volume.

Figure 2: Illustration of the MP6 6U CubeSat (image credit: NanoAvionics)
Figure 2: Illustration of the MP6 6U CubeSat (image credit: NanoAvionics)

• The smallsats included four 6U CubeSats for Kleos Space S.A. of Luxembourg, which plans a constellation of small satellites to monitor radio transmissions around the world. The first four satellites are known as Kleos' Scouting Mission (KSM 1A, KSM 1B, KSM 1C, KSM 1D). Kleos Space S.A. is a space-powered Radio Frequency Reconnaissance data-as-a-service (DaaS) company. 2)

- Kleos says its satellites will detect and geolocate radio frequency transmissions, providing intelligence on maritime activity for governments and commercial customers. The radio frequency monitoring data will be particularly useful for tracking ships that can't be monitored using automated identification systems or satellite imagery, according to Kleos.

- Kleos will launch and operate up to a maximum of 20 clusters of satellites creating a constellation that provides critical coverage for monitoring global events and key locations of interest.

- After the deployment, the commissioning phase has now commenced. The operations team have successfully made contact with all 4 Satellites. It has been confirmed that they have detumbled, battery status is as expected and onboard watchdogs are operational. KleosSpace S.A.-26, rue des Gaulois -L-1618 Luxembourg1/ 4MEDIA RELEASESuccessful launch of Kleos Space Scouting Mission satellites into 37-degree Inclined Orbit 3)

- Kleos Space S.A. is a space-enabled, activity-based intelligence, data-as-a-service company based in Luxembourg with subsidiaries in the UK, US and Australia. Kleos aims to guard borders, protect assets and save lives by delivering global activity-based intelligence and geolocation as a service. The Kleos constellation will be progressively increased, growing to a maximum of 20 clusters improving and enhancing the data Kleos can provide to customers.

Figure 3: Artist's rendition of a 6U Kleos CubeSat in orbit (image credit: Kleos)
Figure 3: Artist's rendition of a 6U Kleos CubeSat in orbit (image credit: Kleos)

• Four Lemur-2 CubeSats also launched for Spire Global, a San Francisco-based company that operates a fleet of commercial smallsats that track shipping traffic and collect weather data.


Indian officials halted launch operations at the Satish Dhawan Space Center earlier this year after the onset of the coronavirus pandemic. Government-imposed travel and work restrictions made it difficult to prepare for space missions on India's launch schedule this year.

"Because of this situation, there are some delays in our missions," Sivan said last month in a virtual press conference at the 71st International Astronautical Congress.


1) "PSLV successfully launches EOS-01 and nine customer satellites from Sriharikota," ISRO, 07 November 2021, URL:

2) "4x Scouting Satellites Launched:," Kleos, 07 November 2020, URL:

3) "Successful launch of Kleos Space Scouting Mission satellites into 37 degree Inclined Orbit," KLEOS Press Release, 7 November 2021, URL:


The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: "Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors" (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates (

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